Individual Poets A - Z

A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  Y

Abbot, Richard (b. 1818), of Burton, Westmorland, son of a contractor on the Lancaster Canal, educated at a dame school, worked as a shepherd and railway construction worker, later a quarry manager, pub. The pen, the press, and the sword, with other poems and balsams for wounded hearts (Darlington, 1879). War!: a descriptive poem on passing events (Bishop Auckland, 1868), War, Canto III: Raby, Keverstone, Staindrop, &c.; The railway jubilee; Ode to Ingelborough, and other select poems and songs (London and Darlington, 1876), The Wanderer, in special trains of grave thoughts (Darlington, 1901). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 4.

? Ablitt, Nat, one of seven sons of Jacob Ablitt of Kesgrave, ‘one day was to school and one day was to keep the sheep’; pub. History, Poems and Writings of Nat Ablitt (Ipswich, c. 1850). Ref Cranbrook, pp. 99, 153.

Ackroyd, John (1819-76), of Greenclough, Alderscholes, Thornton, Yorkshire, weavers’ son, powerloom weaver at Bradford, sunday school teacher, pub. Poems, ed. by William Cudworth (Thornton, 1886). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 5.

Adam, John, of Dundee, millworker and ‘wandering minstrel’ (ballad seller), pub. poem in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 3 (1881), pp. 219-21 [S]

Adams, Jane or Jean (1710-65), of Greenock, shipmaster’s daughter, governess and maid, teacher, later hawker, died in workhouse, pub. Miscellany Poems (1734). Ref Lonsdale (1989), pp. 141-5; Fullard, pp. 157, 547. [S] [F]

Adamson, Robert (b. 1832) of Muirkirk, near Dunfermline, Fife, scant education, weaver, then engine-keeper in the ironworks, pub. Lays of Leisure Hours, a collection of miscellaneous poems and sketches. With Introductory note, by Rev. A. Wallace, D.D., Glasgow (Dunfermline: A. Romanes, 1879). Ref Inf. of Bob Heyes; Reilly (2000), p. 6; Murdoch, pp. 274-7. [S]

Adcock, Anna, born ‘among the wild and most sequestered scenes of nature’ and ‘denied a liberal education’, pub. Cottage Poems (1808). Ref Jackson (1993), pp. 3-4, MacDonald Shaw, pp. 91-4, Clare, Letters, pp. 333-4. [F]

Aggett, Thomas Henry (b. 1863), ‘The Railway Poet of the West’, railway porter of Teignmouth, pub. Demon Hunter, A Legend of Torquay (1889), Vagabond Verses. Through the combes and vales of, delectable Devon. By Autolycus (?1894; Teignmouth, 1904); BL. Ref Wright, pp. 2-4.

Aird, Andrew, of Paisley, joiner, pub. Hope-Temple, or Unpagan’d-Pantheon, a Humorous Poetical Tale (1815). Ref Brown. [S]

Airth, James (b. 1804), of Arbroath, baker, staionmaster, tollkeeper, farmer, pub. Maud’s Dream, and Various Minor Poems (1848). Ref Edwards, 6 (1883), pp. 60-69. [S]

Aitkin, William (b. 1851), of Sorn, Ayrshire, shoemaker’s apprentice, railwayman, pub. Rhymes and Readings (Glasgow, 1880), Lays of the Line (Edinburgh and Glasgow, 1883), Echoes from the Iron Road (1893). Ref Murdoch, pp. 418-22, Vicinus (1969), 341, Leonard, pp. 319-22, Reilly (1994), p. 7, Edwards, 2 (1881), pp. 161-6. [S]

Aldridge, T.L. (fl. 1850s-60s), of Oxford, pub. [with G. Curtis] Poem dedicated to the working men of England; by two of their order, second enlarged edition [cover title Golden moments] (London and Oxford, 1861). Ref Reilly (2000), pp. 7-8.

Alexander, William (1805-75), of Paisley, drawboy and weaver, pub. posthumous collection of work in 1881. Ref Brown. [S]

Allan, David (b. 1857), of Carstairs, Lanarkshire, railway signalman, pub. poems in People’s Journal and elsewhere. Ref Edwards, 6 (1883), pp. 166-70. [S]

Allan, David Skea (b. 1840), of Eday, Orkney, tailor from a poor family, later acquired higher education and became an important civic figure in Glasgow. Ref Edwards, 12 (1889), pp. 65-74. [S]

Allan, Peter (fl. 1854), shoemaker poet, The Exile King, and other poems (Edinburgh, 1854). [S]

? Allan, Robert (1741-1841), Scottish weaver poet of Kilbarchan; first appeared in a collection of Scottish poets in 1820; published his own volume by subscription in 1836; The Pocket Songster (1833, 1836); Evening hours: Poems and songs (Glasgow: David Robertson, 1836); Selected Songs (1855). Ref Wilson, I, pp. 510-14, Johnson, item 11, DNB. [S]

Allan, William (b. 1837), of Dundee, engineer, blockade runner in the American Civil War, engineering manager of Sunderland, pub. six vols of poetry. Ref Murdoch, pp. 309-13.

? Allan, William (b. 1844), of Footdee, Aberdeen, bookbinder, poems in Edwards. Ref  Edwards, 6 (1883), pp. 342-4. [S]

Allison, James (b. 1844), of Glasgow, son of a widowed millworker, storekeeper, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 3 (1881), pp. 373-6. [S]

Anderson, Alexander (‘Surfaceman’) (1845-1909), of Kirkconnel, Dumfriesshire, son of a quarryman, train driver and poet, self-taught in six languages, described by Vicinus as ‘the first navvy poet’, pub. A Song of Labour and other poems (Kirkconnel, Dumfriesshire, 1873, London, 1883), The two angels and other poems, with an introductory sketch by George Gilfillan (London and Edinburgh, 1874), Songs of the Rail (London and Edinburgh, 1878 [2 edns], 3rd edition 1881), Ballads and sonnets (London, 1879). Ref Muroch, pp. 401-6, Wilson, II, pp. 501-5, Vicinus (1969), 4, 342, Maidment (1987), pp. 209 [image], 275-7, EPFTD, Miles, X, p. xviii, Reilly (2000), p. 12. [S] [LC 6]

Anderson, David, mechanic, of Aberdeen, pub. The Scottish Village: a rural poem (Aberdeen, 1808), The martial achievements of Sir William Wallace: an historical play (Aberdeen, 1821), Poems, chiefly in the Scottish dialect (Aberdeen, 1826, two edns); King Robert Bruce, or the Battle of Bannockburn: an historical play by the author of The Scottish Village (1833). Ref CBEL3, p. 224. [S]

? Anderson, Edward, ship’s master, formerly a shepherd, pub. The sailor: a poem (Hull, 1825, 11th edn). Ref Johnson, item 15.

Anderson, George W. (b. 1856), of Muir of Rhynie, soldier poet. Ref Edwards, 14 (1891), pp. 17-30. [S]

Anderson, James, Northumbrian miner, worked at Elswick colliery, won prizes for dialect songs in 1870, pub. The ‘Newcastle Chronicle’ Prize Song, and sundry other pieces, respectfully dedicated to the miners of Durham and Northumberland. By James Anderson, one of their number (Newcastle upon Tyne: J.M. Carr, 1870). Ref Allan, p. 519, MBP3, item 86.

? Anderson, John (1820-62), of Musselburgh, son of a soldier, of minimum education, apprenticed to a leather merchant, pub. In memory of John Anderson and Mary Christine Anderson (Edinburgh, 1863) [his sister Mary Christine had died in 1842 aged 16]; The weal and woe of Caledonia [poems], with an Introduction by Fergus Ferguson (Glasgow: Scottish Temperance League, and London). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 12. [S]

? Anderson, Joseph, The Artless Muse; or attempts in verse, on different subjects (Peterhead, 1818), includes poem on Shenstone. Ref Johnson, item 16. [S]

Anderson, Matthew (b. 1864), of Waterside, Dalmellington, Ayrshire, farmboy, coalminer, soldier and special constable, pub. Poems of a Policeman (Paisley, Edinburgh and London, 1898). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 14; MBP3, item 88. [S]

Anderson, Robert (1770-1833), pattern-drawer and calico printer of Carlisle, pub. Ballads in the Cumbrian Dialect (Carlisle 1805); Poems on various subjects (Carlisle, 1798), The Poetical Works (Carlisle, 1820). Ref Miles, X, p. v, Allan, pp. 167-8, Ashraf (1975), pp. 117-18, Cafarelli, 83-4, EPFTD, Johnson, items 17-22, 64, 573, 743, 795. [LC 3]

Anderson, Thomas (b. 1810), of Fordyce, Banffshire, herdboy, shoemaker, printer, pub. Poems and Songs (Aberdeen, 1844). Ref Edwards, 14 (1891), pp. 160-6. [S]

Anderson, William (1793-1885), of Paisley, weaver and later bookseller, pub. the New Paisley Repository. Ref Brown. [S]

Anderson, William (1802-1867), of Aberdeen, weaver, policeman, 4 poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 2 (1881), pp. 234-9. [S]

Angus, William C. (b. 1870), of Arbroath, Angus, apprentice tinsmith, soldier, pub. Under the shadow: songs of labour and of love (Arbroath, 1896). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 15. [S]

Aram, Peter (fl. 1733), Sir John Ingilby’s Gardener at Ripley Castle, naturalist and poet, author of poems published in Thomas Gent, The Antient and Modern History of the Loyal Town of Ripon (York, 1733). Ref Frank Felsenstein (ed) Peter Aram, ‘A Practical Treatise of Flowers’, Proc. Leeds Phil. & Lit. Soc., XX, part i (Leeds, 1985), includes a biography. (F). [LC 1]

Archibald, James (1817-87), of Paisley, weaver, lived in Tannahill’s former house. wrote poems in praise of Tannahill. Ref Brown. [S]

Armstrong, Andrew James (b 1848), Scottish poet, orphan, errand boy, cabinet-maker, pub. Ingleside musings and tales told in rhyme (Dalbeattie, 1890). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 17. [S]

? Armstrong, A.W., Irish sailor, pub. O’Neil’s farewell. A poem (North Shields: W. Orange, 1816), a criminal narrative by the convict’s friend. Johnson, item 25. [I]

Armstrong, Tommy (1848-1920), of Tanfield, County Durham, pitman poet, pub numerous broadsheet poems and songs; collected editions include Tommy Armstrong Sings, introduced by Tom Gilfellon (Newcastle upon Tyne: Frank Graham, 1971); Pollisses and Candymen, ed by Ross Forbes (Consett: Tommy Armstrong Memorial Trust, 1987). [LC 6]

Armstrong, William (b. 1804), of Newcastle, shoemaker’s son, painter, author of ‘Lizzie Mudie’s Ghost’ and other popular songs, pub. in miscellanies, 1823-42. Ref Allan, pp. 215-21.

Arneil, William (b. 1856), of Paisley, tanner, at age 15 wrote poem to Tannahill pub. in Paisley Herald, wrote poems on current political events. Ref Brown. [S]

? Arnott, John (fl. 1846), popular Chartist poet. Ref Kovalev, pp. 116-17; Scheckner, pp. 329.

Ash, Charles Bowker (1781-1864), of Adbaston, Staffs, farmer’s son, walker, actor, pub. The Hermit of Hawkestone (Bath, 1816); Poetical Works (London, 1831). Ref Staffs. Poets, pp. 138-41.

? As(h)ton, Robert (fl. 1725-27), shoemaker poet, A Congratulatory Poem to the Reverend Daen [sic] Swift (Dublin, 1725), Poem in honor of the Loyal Society of Journeymen Shoe-makers. On the Feast of St. Crispin (Dublin, 1725, 1726), A Satyr on the Journey-Man Taylors (Dublin, 1725), A poem on the birthday of Her late Majesty Queen Anne, of ever glorious memory, dedicated to Reverend Dean Swift (Dublin, 1726-7). Ref Christmas, p. 69. [I]

Askham, John (1825-94) of Wellingborough, Northants., shoemaker, later librarian of the Literary Institute, Wellingborough, member of the school board, school attendance officer and sanitary inspector, 1874, pub. Sonnets on the Months, and Other Poems (Northampton, 1863, BL, Descriptive Poems, Miscellaneous Pieces, and Miscellaneous Sonnets (1866), Judith and other Poems, and a Centenary of Sonnets (London and Northampton, 1868), Poems and Sonnets, Descriptive, Miscellaneous, and Special (London: F. Warne, Northampton: Taylor & Son, 1875), Irenia; or the City of the Dead [in verse] (1878, BL 11643.h.26(3), Sketches in Prose and Verse (1893). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 21, Reilly (2000), p. 17; MBP3, items 134-6. [LC 6]

Atherstone, Edwin or Edward (1788-1872), pub. The Last Days of Herculaeum (1821), Israel in Egypt: a poem (London, 1861), The Fall of Nineveh: a Poem, 2nd edn, 2 vols (London, 1868). Ref NCBEL III, 363; James p. 172; Cross p. 83, Reilly (2000), p. 17, EPFTD.

Atkin, John, self-taught carpenter and joiner of North Muskham, Nottinghamshire, correspondent of John Clare, pub. Jonah Tink, a poem (Newark, 1823). Ref Johnson, item 35, Jarndyce, item 1264.

? Atkinson, Jane (‘Jenny Wren’‚ printer’s wife of Keighley, Yorkshire, pub. Facts and fancies in verse and prose (London and Keighley, 1864). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 18. [F]

A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  Y

Bachelor or Batchelor, Thomas (fl. 1804-09), self taught farmworker, of Bedford, agriculturalist and poet, author of Village Scenes, The Progress of Agriculture, and Other Poems (1804); A General View of the Agriculture of the County of Bedford (1808). Ref Barrell and Bull, pp. 370-1; Sambrook, 1360; Barrell, pp. 32 and 75; Jarndyce, item 1272.

Bagford, John (1657-1716), shoemaker poet, pub. The Bagford Ballads (republished in 1878).

? Bailey, Thomas , (1785-1856), Nottingham tradesman, ‘rhyming shopkeeper’, pub. The carnival of death. A poem in two cantos (London: Longman, 1822), dedication indicates a pacifist poem; What is Life and other Poems (London: Baldwin Cradock, 1820). Ref Powell, item 104. Ref Johnson, items 40-1, Crossan, 37.

? Baird, Henry (1829-1881), (‘Nathan Hogg’), of Starcross, Devon, solicitor’s clerk (‘Law feeds the lawyer, but it starves his clerk’), later a bookseller and reporter on the Plymouth Mail and Western Times, pub. Letters in the Devonshire Dialect (Exeter, 1847; 2nd edn. 1850); Poetical Letters tu es Brither Jan, and a witch story in the Devonshire dialect (third edn, Exeter, 1858); The Song of Solomon in the Devonshire Dialect.   From the authorised English version (London, 1860).   Ref Wright, pp. 16-19. [LC 5]

Bakewell, Thomas (1761-1835), weaver, pub. The Moorland Bard, or Poetical Recollections of a weaver, in the moorlands of Staffordshire (Hanley: Allbut, 1807), also wrote a domestic guide in cases of insanity. Ref Staffs. Poets, pp. 113-14; Johnson, item 44, NCSTC, Jackson (1985).

Baker, Thomas, thatcher of Wickham Market, pub. A Poem for the Winter Season (Ipswich, 1759). Ref Cranbrook, p. 249.

Balfour, Alexander (1767-1829), of Monikie, Forfarshire, weaver, schoolmaster, later a merchant and manufacturer, pub. Contemplation and Other Poems (1820), Characters Omitted in Crabbe’s Parish Register (1825), Powell, item 105. Ref Wilson, I, pp. 434-41. [S]

Balfour, Charles (b. 1819), of Carnoustie, farmer‘s boy, factory worker, soldier, stationmaster, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 3 (1881), pp. 406-10. [S]

? Ballantine, James (1808-77), of West Port, Edinburgh, merchant’s son, housepainter’s apprentice, maker of stain-glass windows, poet, pub. poems in Whistlebinkie, pub. Gaberlunzie’s Wallet (1843), Lilias lee, and other poems (Edinburgh and Buxton, 1871), A visit to Buxton: a metrical description (Buxton, 1873). Ref Edwards, 3 (1881), 25-32, Wilson, II, pp. 298-303, Douglas, p. 309, Miles, X, p. xviii, Reilly (2000), p. 25. [S]

Ballantine, James (1860-1887), of Crindledyke, Cambusthen, trap-door boy in a coal mine from age 12, broke his spine in an accident, Poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 11 and 12 (`1889), p. x. [S]

Bamford, Samuel (1788-1872), of Middleton, Lancs., radical weaver, member of the ‘Sun Inn’ group of Manchester poets, pub. The Weaver Boy; or Miscellaneous Poetry (Manchester 1819) [NCSTC]; Hours in the Bowers. Poems (Manchester, 1834), Homely rhymes, poems and reminiscences (1843, rev. and enlarged edn London and Manchester, 1864). Ref Harland, pp. 220-8, 289-91, 353-5, 411-13, 479-80, 485-8, Vicinus (1973), 741, Vicinus (1974), p. 149; Maidment (1987), pp. 232-42, Hollingworth, p. 151, Zlotnick, pp. 179-80; Johnson, item 46; Reilly (2000), p. 27. [LC 5]

Banks, George Linnaeus (1841-81), of Birmingham, cabinet casemaker, salesman, editor, pub, in magazines. Ref   Warwicks. Poets, pp. 236-41,

Bancks, John (1709-1751). Ref Røstvig, pp. 155-7; Klaus (1985), pp. 15-16, Goodridge (1990), 19-20, Christmas, pp. 21, 96-106. [LC 1]

? Banton, John, of Rutland, poet of humble origins, pub. The Village Wreath (1822), Excursions of Fancy (1824). Ref Crossan, 37, Powell, items 106-7.

? Barber, Mary (1690?-1757), wool-merchant’s wife, pub. Poems 1734. Ref Rowton, pp. 117-18, EPFTD, Lonsdale (1989), pp. 118-29, Fullard, pp. 296-300, 548-9, Burmester, item 357 and p. 107 (image); Christopher Fanning, ‘The Voices of the Dependent Poet: the case of Mary Barber’, Women’s Writing, 8, no. 1 (2001), 81-97; Christmas, p. 115, Carpenter, p. 194. [I] [F]

Barham, George, shepherd, pub. The Christian’s last hope; or, pathetic pieces on departed friends (London, 1866). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 28.

? Barker, John Thomas (b. 1844), of Bramley, nr. Leeds, in commerce from fifteen, sometimes wrote in dialect, pub. The midsummer day’s dream (London and Leeds, 1869) . Ref Reilly (2000), p. 28.

? Barlow, John, of Cheadle, Cheshire, pub. Homely rhymes and sayings, humbly dedicated to the working classes of England, the colliers in particular (Cheadle, ?1879). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 29.

Barlow, Thomas (1826-1904), of Radcliffe, Lancs., ‘The Bard of Longdendale’, calico printer, later ‘one of the first working-man magistrates of Glossop’, pub. A pic-nic at Woodhead: Scenes around Castleton, and other poems (Manchester and London, 1867), Poems (London, 1894). Ref Reilly (1994), pp. 30-1, Reilly (2000), p. 29.

? Barmby, John Goodwin (1820-81), of Yoxford, Suffolk, ‘comprehensively educated autodidact, a Chartist agitator, writer of poems and pamphlets, socialist and feminist’ (Klaus), pub. The poetry of spring: a poem (London, 1860), The return of the swallow, and other poems (London, 1864). Ref Ashraf (1975), pp. 228-30, Maidment (1987), p. 213; Klaus (1985), pp. 37-40, 42 (discussing his utopian writings), Cranbrook, pp. 128-9, 158-9, Reilly (2000), p. 29.

Barnard, Andrew (b. 1860), of Grangemouth, son of the mineworker poet Francis Barnard, worked with his father, disabled in an accident, later a weaver, joiner and musician, then engine-keeper, pub. poems in newspapers and in Edwards, 13 (1890), pp. 132-5. [S]

Barnard, Francis of Woodend, Armadale, mineworker poet, father of Andrew Barnard, pub. Sparks from a miner’s lamp: being poems and songs (Airdrie, 1875), Chirps frae the engine lum; ghaist o' Gartmorn, and other poems (Bathgate, 1889). Ref Edwards, 10 (1887); COPAC, copies in Aberdeen University Library. [S]

Baron, John (b. 1823), of Blackburn, handloom weaver then factory operative, published a collection of poems jointly with the printer James Walkden, Flowers of Many Hues, in 1847. Ref Hull, pp. 85-100.

Baron, John Thomas (‘Jack O’Ann’s’) (b. 1856), of Blackburn, shopworker, iron turner and fitter, prolific dialect poet, brother to William Baron (his nephew Joseph Baron was also a dialect poet—see Hull, pp. 386-404—but is not a ‘labouring class’ poet). Ref Hull, pp. 362-86, Maidment (1987), pp. 351-2.

Baron, William (1865-1927) (‘Bill o’Jacks’), of Blackpool then Blackburn, factory worker, dialect ‘poet of the people’, Bits o’ Broad Lancashire (Blackburn and Manchester, 1888). Ref Hull, pp. 429-39, Maidment (1987), pp. 269-70, 351-2, Hollingworth, p. 151.

Barr, John, of Paisley, engineer, emigrated to Australia in 1852, pub. Poems and Songs, Descriptive and Lyrical (Edinburgh, 1861). Ref Edwards, 12 (1889), pp. 284-90. [S]

Barrass, Alexander, Durham miner, pub. The Derwent Valley, and other poems (Newcastle upon Tyne, 1887). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 31.

Barrie, James (b. 1753-1829)), shepherd then journeyman wright, ‘The Earl of Buchan’s own poet-laureate’ (Sir Walter Scott), pub. Poems for the Use of Children (1808); Poems on Various Subjects (Kelso, 1817); Riverside Poems (1821). Ref Crockett, pp. 97-8, Johnson, item 53. [S]

Bartlett, Frederick R., ‘a working man of the Black Country, living at Bilston, Staffordshire’, pub. Flashes from forge & foundry: a volume of poems (Bilston, Staffs, 1886). Ref Staffs. Poets, p. 462; Reilly (1994), p. 32. [LC 6]

? Bealey, Richard Rome (1828-87), of Rochdale, masterbleacher, draper, businessman, dialect and temperance poet, lived in Manchester and Nottingham, pub. After-business jottings: poems (London and Manchester, 1864), 2nd edition ?1867; Field flowers and city chimes: poems (London and Manchester, 1866), Old hall rhymes (London and Manchester, 1868), Poems (c. 1870), Later-life jottings in verse and prose (Manchester and London, 1884). Ref Harland, pp. 260-2, 295-7, 303-9, 321, 332-3, 385-90, 392, 394-5, 425-6, 449-51, 480-1, Hollingworth, p. 151, Vicinus (1969), 30, Reilly (1994), p. 35, Reilly (2000), p. 34.

Beattie, George (1786-1823), of St Cyrus, Kincardineshire, son of a crofter and fisherman, trained to be a mechanic, author of ‘John o’ Arnha’, pub. John o Arnaha’. To which is added the Murderit Mynstrell and other poems (Montrose, 1818). Ref Wilson, II, pp. 87-90; George Beattie, of Montrose, a poet, a humourist, and a man of genius (1863). [S]

Beattie, William (c. 1756-1801), flax-dresser of Aberdeen, pub. Fruits of time parings: being a collection of original poems, Scotch and Englishl; composed to fill up a few of the author’s blank hours—and respectfully offered to the public (Aberdeen: W. Rettie, 1801). Ref Johnson, item 61. [S]

Bell, John, ‘self taught, without any regular education., pub. Cartland-Craigs: a poem (Edinburgh: C. Stewart, for William Blackwood, J. Annan, and W, Robertson, Lanark, 1816) pp. viii,79, [3]. Ref, 27.xi.01. [S]

Bell, Thomas (1766-1824), of Ceres, Fife, of humble birth, pub. ‘Ballad’ and ‘Song’ in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 2 (1881), 55-7. [S]

? Belson, Mary, The Mice and their Pic Nic... (London: Private, 1810), by a Looking-glass Maker [Mary Belson]. Ref Jackson (1985). [F]

? Benger, Elizabeth Ogilvy (1778-1827), of Wells, Somerset, daughter of a navy purser, ‘read open books in shop windows, returning each day when the page had been turned’ , pub. The Female Geniad; a Poem (London, 1791), ‘A Poem, Occasioned by the Abolition of the Slave Trade’ in Poems on the Abolition of the Slave Trade by James Montgomery, James Graham and E. Benger (London, 1809), pp. 101-41. Ref Jackson (1993), pp. 25-6. [F]

Bennet, John (fl. 1774-96), shoemaker, author of Poems on Several Occasions (1774), Redemption, a Poem (?1796). Ref NCBEL II; ESTC; Critical Review, 37, p. 473, Southey, pp. 122-4, Winks, pp. 297-9, Harvey, EPFTD, Christmas, pp. 18, 210-12, 215-20. [LC 2]

Bennet, William (b. 1802), of Glencairn, Dumfriesshire, of humble parents, apprenticed as a mechanic, contributed poems to the Dumfries Courier, became editor of the Glasgow Free Press, pub. first vol of poetry at eighteen (1820), second was Songs of Solitude, third The Chief of Glenorchy, also prose works. Ref Wilson, II, pp. 248-50. [S]

Bennett, Robert (b. 1855), of Linlithgow, West Lothian, son of a pattern designer, draper, wrote in the Glasgow Weekly Herald and Sunday School, pub. Poems and Prose (Glasgow, 1888). Ref Edwards, 12 (1889), pp. 27-32; Reilly (1994), p. 42. [S]

Bentley, Elizabeth (1767-1839), daughter of a journeyman cordwainer, author of Genuine Poetical Compositions on various Subjects (Norwich, 1791, BL 993.c.43(4)), An Ode on the glorious Victory over the French... (Norwich 1805? BL 10601.a.28(3)), Poems, being the genuine compositions of Elizabeth Bentley, of Norwich (Norwich, 1821, BL, Miscellaneous Poems; being the Genuine Compositions... Third Volume (Norwich, 1835). Ref Rizzo, 243, Johnson, items 68-70, 932, Harvey, Jackson (1993), p. 26. [LC 3] [F]

? Bernstein, Marion, invalided and bedridden in childhood, Jewish-Scottish poor music teacher of Glasgow, pub. Mirren’s Musings: A Collection of Songs and Poems (Glasgow, 1876). Ref Boos (1995), 68, Leonard, pp. 296-305, Reilly (2000), p. 39. [S] [F]

Berry, Lizzie (b. 1847) of Great Bowden, Leicestershire, of poor parents, lived in Otley, pub. Poems (Rugby, 1879), Day dreams: a collection of miscellaneous poems (Otley, 1893), Heart sketches: original miscellaneous & devotional poems (Otley, 1886), with a portrait of the author. Ref Reilly (1994), p. 44, Reilly (2000), p. 39. [F]

Bethune, Alexander (1804-43), Fifeshire labourer, brother of John Bethune, worked ‘digging clayey soil’, pub. Tales and Sketches of the Scottish Peasantry (1838); The Scottish Peasant’s Fireside: A Series of Tales and Sketches Illustrating the Character of the Peasantry of Scotland (1843); Memoirs of Alexander Bethune: Embracing Selections from his Correspondence and Literary Remains (1845); Tales of the Scottish Peasantry, with a Biography of the Authors by John Ingram   [with his brother] (Glasgow and London, 1884). Ref Wilson, II, pp. 265-7, Shanks, pp. 146-53, Maidment (1987), p. 138, EPFTD. [S] [LC 5]

Bethune, John (1810 or 1812-39): younger brother of Alexander Bethune. Also contributed verses to newspapers, pub. Poems by the late John Bethune: With a Sketch of the Author’s Life by his Brother (Edinburgh, 1840). Ref Wilson, II, pp. 330-4, DNB, Cross, p. 153, Maidment (1987), pp. 138-41, Shanks, pp. 146-53, EPFTD. [S] [LC 5]

Beveridge, Mitchell Kilgour (b. 1831), of Dunfermline, emigrated to Australia in 1839, bushman, pub Gatherings Among the Gum-trees (1863). Ref Edwards, 12 (1889), pp. 258-63. [S]

Bewley, John, apprentice shoemaker at Crookdale, Wigtown, Cumberland, pub. Bewley’s day dreams: a series of poetical pieces (Mealsgate, 1891). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 45.

Billington, William (?1827-84), ‘The Blackburn Poet’, born at Samlesbury, Lancashire, doffer (=worker involved in removing the full [cotton] bobbins or spindles, OED), ‘stripper and grinder’, then dandy-loom weaver, later a publican, pub. Sheen and Shade: Lyrical Poems (Blackburn, 1861), Lancashire Songs, with other poems and sketches (1883). Ref Hull, pp. 113-32, Maidment (1987), pp. 15, 160, 170, Vicinus (1974), pp. 141, 167, Hollingworth, pp. 151-2, Reilly (1994), p. 47, Reilly (2000), p. 41.

? Binns, George (1816-48), of Sunderland, Chartist agitator, poet, bookseller, pub. ‘Chartist Mother’s Song’ in The Northern Liberator, 1st February 1840; The Doom of Toil  (1841), composed whilst the author was jailed for sedition. Ref Kovalev, pp. 65-69, Scheckner, pp. 119-23, 313, 330, 343. [LC 5]

Bird, James (1788-1839), dramatist and poetical writer, apprenticed to miller, pub. The Vale of Slaughden (Halesworth, 1819), a poem favourably compared to Bloomfield, The White Hats (1819), a mock heroic attack on radical reformers; also wrote an imitation of Byron’s Don Juan, see his Poetical Memoirs (1823) as well as numerous other collections, including Cosmo, Duke of Tuscany (London, 1822); Dunwich: a tale of the splendid city (London 1828); The emigrant’s tale...and miscellaneous poems (London, 1833); Framlingham: a narrative of the castle (London, 1831); Francis Abbot, the recluse of Niagara (London, 1837); Machin, or the discovery of Madeira (London, 1821); Poetical memoirs (London, 1833). Ref Johnson, items 74-81, Jarndyce, item 1284, inf Bridget Keegan. [LC 4]

Birrell, Mary, of Dundee, minimum education, pub. The Rifle Volunteers, and other poems (Dundee, 1861). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 42. [S] [F]

Black, John (b. 1847), of East Handaxwood, Midlothian, moorland farmer’s son, engineering worker, 2 poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 2 (1881), pp. 179-81. [S]

Black, William (b. 1825), of Calton, Glasgow, weaver, temperance agitator, orangeman, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 12 (1889), pp. 102-4. [S]

Blackah, Thomas (1828-95), of Greenhow Hill, Yorkshire, ‘the leadminer’s poet’, pub. Songs and Poems, written in the Nidderdale Dialect (1867), Dialect Poems and Prose, with a short biography by Harald John Lexow Bruff, first edition (York, 1937). Ref Maidment (1987), pp. 227, 229-30; inf. Bob Heyes. [LC 6]

Blackburn, John James (b, 1836), of London, lived most of hs life in Scotland, hosier, glover and shirtmaker, pub poems in newspapers. Ref Edwards, 14, (1891), pp. 62-6. [S]

Blacket, Joseph (1786-1810), shoemaker poet, son of a Yorkshire day labourer, Specimens of the Poetry of Joseph Blacket, with an account of his Life and some introductory observations (London, 1809), The Times, an ode (1809), The Remains of Joseph Blacket, ed. by Samuel Jackson Pratt (London: Sherwood, Neely and Jones, 1811). Ref Winks, pp. 308-13 [image on p. 309], Cross, pp. 130-3, Rizzo, 243, Goodridge (1999), item 8, Harvey, Vincent, p. 204.

Blacklock, Thomas (1721-1791), EPFTD. Ref Wilson, I, pp. 198-201, Christmas, p. 75. [LC 2]

Blackwell, John (1797-1840), shoemaker poet, several collections in Welsh including Ceinion Alun (1851). [W]

Blair, John, of Stirling, type-foundry worker, pub. Masonic songs, oddfellow songs, and other rhymes (1888). Ref Edwards, 13 (1890), pp. 146-51. [S]

? Blake, William (1757-1827), first vol., Poetical Sketches (1783), was presented as the work of an ‘untutored youth’, and Blake was proud of being ‘untaught’. Ref Richardson, pp. 249, 254, Goodridge (1999), item 10.

? Blamire, Susannah (1747-1794), yeoman farmer’s daughter, Cumberland poet. Ref Rowton, pp. 237-9, Lonsdale (1989), pp. 278-94, Fullard, p. 550, EPFTD. [F]

Blandford, Edward James, musician, hairdresser, ultra-radical and poet. Ref Worrall, pp. 146-63.

Bloomfield, George (1757-1831), brother of Robert Bloomfield, also a poet. Ref Harvey, DNB (under Robert Bloomfield); Hobsbawm and Scott, p. 97, Cranbrook, pp. 68, 164-5.

Bloomfield, Isaac, brother of Robert Bloomfield, wrote songs. Ref several references in Bloomfield’s Letters (unpublished database).

Bloomfield, Nathaniel (b. 1759-after 1822), tailor, brother of Robert Bloomfield, pub. An essay on war, in blank verse; Honington Green a ballad; the culprit an elegy; and other poems on various subjects (London: Thos. Hurst and Vernor and Hood, 1803, two edns), with a preface by Capel Lofft. Ref Harvey, Johnson, item 100, Jarndyce, items 1287-8, Cranbrook, pp. 70, 165. [LC 4]

Bloomfield, Robert (1766-1823), shoemaker poet The Farmer’s Boy (1800), Rural Tales, Ballads and Songs (1802), Good Tidings; or News from the Farm (1804), Wild Flowers; or Pastoral and Local Poetry (1806), The History of Little Davy’s New Hat (1815), May-Day with the Muses (1822), The Banks of the Wye (1823); Hazelwood Hall: A Village Drama (1823). Ref Southey, p. 163, Miles, ‘Crabbe to Coleridge’, pp. 151-72, Craik, II, pp. 208-19; Blunden, pp. 117-31, Unwin, ch. 5, pp. 87-109, Winks, 99-116, Klaus (1985), pp. 6-9, 15, 20, Shiach, pp. 60-1, Maidment (1983), 87, Hobsbawm and Scott, p. 96, Cafarelli, 85-6, Rizzo, 243, Phillips, 216; Harvey, Richardson, pp. 247-50, Powell, items 118-24, Johnson, items 486, 754, 840, Jarndyce, items 1289-1302, Miles, I, p. 151 & X, p. 257, EPFTD. [LC 4]

Blythe, John Dean (1842-69), of Ashton-under-Lyne, cotton-mill factory hand, clerk, radical, killed in a gun accident, pub. A sketch in the life, and a selection from the writings of John Dean Blythe (Manchester, 1870). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 46. [LC 6]

? Bolton, William (b. 1861), of Brindle, Lancs., son of a handloom-weaver but educated at Ampleforth and became a salesman, pub. poems in newspapers. Ref Hull, pp. 417-23.

? Bolton, William, Corporal, 1st Middlesex Engineers Volunteers, pub. Foliage and blossom (Croydon, 1879). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 47.

? Bond, Richard, fl. 1769, bookseller, author of Poems Divine and Moral (Gloucester, ?1769). Ref Gents. Mag., 39 (1769), p. 158; BL 11602.ff.14(3).

Borland, Alexander (1793-1858), of Paisley, weaver and pattern-designer, shawl-manufacturer, joined Lanarkshire militia, coal merchant, dyer and banker, author of ‘The Brown Cleuk on’ in Brown, I, pp. 274-5. Ref Leonard, pp. 195-6. [S]

Boucher, Ben (1769-1851), ‘The Dudley Poet and Rhymist’, collier poet of Dudley, Worcs. Ref Staffs. Poets, pp. 115-18;   Notes & Queries, 219 (1974), 61.

Bourne, Hugh (1772-1852), of Bemersley, Staffs., wheelwright, hymn-writer and Primitive Methodist pioneer and preacher; pub. hymns and ‘The Creation, Fall and Redemption of Man’ (Methodist Magazine, 1822). ref Staffs. Poets, pp. 472-3.

Bouskill, Thomas (b. 1779), of Paisley, stocking weaver, never published but wrote for himself. Ref Brown. [S]

Boustead, Christopher Murray, roadman of Keswick, pub. Rustic verse and dialect rhymes (Keswick, 1892). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 56. [LC 6]

Bowie, Agnes H. od Bannockburn, builder’s daughter, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 12 (1889), pp. 152-61. [S] [F]

? Bowker, James, (‘A Lancashire Lad’), author of dialect protest poem ‘Hard Toimes, or the Weaver Speaks to his Wife’, pub. 1862. Ref Harland, pp. 512-14, 546-7, Vicinus (1970), pp. 334-7.

? Bowness, William (1809-67), of Kendal, Westmorland, self-taught artist, pub. Rustic studies in the Westmorland dialect, with other scraps from the sketch-book of an artist (London and Kendal, 1868). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 51.

? Boyd, Elizabeth (fl. 1737-45), ‘from the lowest condition of Fortune’, pub. Variety: A Poem... by Louisa (1727) and other poems and prose works. Ref Lonsdale (1989), pp. 134-5, Fullard, p. 550. [F]

Boyd, George (b. 1848), of Kilmarnoch, house painter, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 12 (1889), pp. 131-4. [S]

? Boyle, James, referred to as a cork-cutter and poet in Alexander Wilson’s ‘The Poet’s Corner’.

Boyle, James Thompson (b. 1849), of Friockheim then Abroath, millwright, soldier. Ref Edwards, 14 (1891), pp. 166-70. [S]

Brack, Jessie, of Longformacus, Lammermoor, domestic servant, poems in Edwards. Wanless. Ref Edwards, 12 (1889), pp. 169-72. [S] [F]

  Bradbury, Stephen Henry (‘Quallon’) (b. 1828), of Nottingham, poor parents, glove maker, Sunday school reader, journalist, pub. Lyrical fancies (London, 1866). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 52.

Bramwich, John Henry (1804-46), of Leicester, Chartist and stockinger-poet. Ref Kovalev, pp. 118-19, Scheckner, pp. 124-5, 330.

Brechin, George (b. 1829), of Ellon, Aberdeenshire, housepainter, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 3 (1881), pp. 414-16. [S]

Breckenridge, John (c. 1790-c. 1840), handloom weaver of Parkhead, Glasgow, wrote ‘The Humours of Gleska Fair’. Ref Murdoch, pp. 96-103. [S]

Brierley, Ben (‘Ab O th’Yate’) (1825-96), of Failsworth, Manchester, handloom weaver of velvet, later a journalist, dialect poet, author of Goosegrave Penny Readings (c. 1865); Home Memories and Recollections of a Life (Manchester, 1886), his autobiography; Spring Blossoms and autumn leaves [poems] (Manchester, 1893); edited Ben Brierley’s Journal. Ref Harland, pp. 447-8, 552-4, Maidment (1987), pp. 360-2, 364-6; Vicinus (1970), p. 349n5, Vicinus (1973), 753-6, Hollingworth, p. 152, Vincent, pp. 111-13, 182, Ashton & Roberts, ch. 8, pp. 97-121, Zlotnick, pp. 195-7; Reilly (1994), p. 64. [LC 6].

Brierley, Thomas (1820-1900), of Alkrington, Middleton, Lancashire, silk weaver, author of ‘Th’Silk-Weaver’s Fust Bearin’-Home’, pub. Nonsense and tom-foolery, and seriousness and solemnity (Manchester and London, 1870), Original pieces, for either recitation or fireside reading (Manchester and London, 1872), Short poems, with pepper and salt in (Manchester and London, [?1892]), The countrified pieces of Thomas Brierley (Oldham, 1894). Ref Harland, pp. 338-9, 402-3, 430-1, 454-5, 471-2, Reilly (1994), p. 64, Reilly (2000), pp. 56-7.

Brimble, William (fl. 1762-5), Poems attempted on various occasions (1765). Ref Christmas, pp. 210-15. [LC 2]

Brown, Alexander (1775-1834), ‘Berwickshire Sandie’, apprentice mason, side-schoolmaster, pub. Poems, mostly in the Scottish dialect (1801). Ref Crockett, pp. 110-13. [S]

Brown, Alexander (b. 1837), of Auchtertool, Fifeshire, cattle herder, cabinet maker, pub. in local press. Ref Murdoch, pp. 302-9. [S]

Brown, David (1826-86), of Paisley, weaver, later keeper of the West End Reading Room, pub. Minstrelsy of My Youth (Paisley, 1845). Ref Brown, Leonard, pp. 184-5. [S]

Brown, ‘Sergeant’ David, of Horndean, soldier and later pedlar in the borders, wrote rhyming epistles & poems of ‘inferior merit’. ref Crocket, p. 293. [S]

Brown, Elizabeth, ‘a cottage girl, Woodend’, pub. Original Poems (1841). Ref Bob Heyes. [F]

Brown, Henry (‘Mechanic’) (fl. 1830-35), carpenter, artisan, pub. The Mechanic's Saturday Night, A Poem In The‘vulgar’ Tongue; Humbly Addressed To The Rt. Hon. Sir Robert Peel. By A Mechanic (London: Printed for the author, 1830); Sunday: A poem in three cantos (1835). Ref Ashraf (1978), I, p. 24. [LC 5].

Brown, Henry (fl. 1860), pub.   A Voice of Warning, by Henry Brown, a Working Man, Who was Blind for six months through an accident at the Cement Works, in the Parish of Northfleet, in the County of Kent.   Composed and written by himself (1860). [LC 5]

Brown, Hugh (d. 1885), muslin weaver, of Newmilns, Ayrshire, later schoolmaster in Galston, Lanark, and a printer’s reader in Glasgow, pub. The Covenanters: and Other Poems (Glasgow: John Symington and Co., 1838). Ref Edwards, 3 (1881), pp. 182-8; Edwards, 9 (1886), pxv; Johnson, item 137. [S]

Brown, James (b. 1836), of Fieldhead, Avondale, Lanarkshire, herd boy, warehouseman, postal worker, pub. Linda, and other poems (London, 1871). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 61. [S]

Brown, John (1812-90), ‘The Horncastle Laureate’, born in Horncastle Workhouse, Lincs., apprenticed to a cabinet-maker, ran away to sea as a cabin boy, travelled to Russia, later a housepainter in London, pub. The lay of the clock and other poems (Horncastle, 1861), Literae laureate: or, a selection from the poetical writings in Lincolnshire language, ed. by J. Conway (Horncastle, 1890). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 68.

Brown, John, of Alexandria, Dunbartonshire, pattern-maker in Glasgow and Manchester, pub. Song Drifts (Glasgow, 1874, 1883), Poems and songs (Glasgow, 1883); Wayside songs, with other verse (Glasgow, 1883); Wayside songs, with other lyrics (Glasgow, 1887). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 68, Reilly (2000), p. 61, Edwards, 2 (1881), pp. 131-4; Murdoch, pp. 266-9. [S]

Brown, Thomas, of Cellerdyke, Anstruther, Fife, pub. Musings of a workman on the pains and praise of man’s great substitute (Anstruther and Edinburgh, 1861). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 62. [S]

? Brown, Thomas, of Normanton Woodhouse, ‘the Derbyshire Stocking Weaver’, The Field of Peterloo. One of the ‘better-known’ working-class poets, James, p. 171. [Warning: I can find no other trace of this one, and the Peterloo poem is usually listed as by Thomas Moore using the pseudonym of Thomas Brown--JG]

? Browne, Frances, ‘The Blind Poetess of Ulster’, educated at home, pub. The Star of Atteghei: The Vision of Schwartz (1844), Lyrics and Miscellaneous Poems (1848). Ref ABC, pp. 356-8. [I] [F] [LC 5]

Browne, Moses (1704-87), self-taught son of a pen-cutter, pub Piscatory Eclogues (1729); Poems on Various Subjects (1739); plays; sermons. Ref Røstvig, II, p. 153; CBEL II, 312.

Bruce, David (b. 1860), of Cupar, Fife, tailor, postman, poems in Edwards. Ref   Edwards, 6 (1883), pp. 274-9. [S]

? Bruce, George (b. 1825), of St. Andrews, orphan, apprentice joiner, engineer, journalist, and town councillor, pub. The first canto of a poem, entitled, Destiny (Cupar-Fife, 1865), Destiny, and other poems (St Andrews, 1876), The two spirits: a poem (St Andrews, 1872), Poems and Songs (Dundee, 1886). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 71, Reilly (2000), p. 64. [S]

Bruce, Michael (1746-1767), Scottish son of weaver; ‘boy genius’ dying of consumption at age of 20; verse reissued several times. Ref Wilson, I, pp. 294-306, Crawford, nos. 59-60, Douglas, pp. 57-8, 290-1, DNB, EPFTD. [LC 2] [S]

Bryan, Mary (fl. 1815). Ref Curran, TWC. [F] [LC 4]

Bryant, John Frederick (1753-91), author of Verses by Bryant, late tobacco-pipe maker at Bristol (1787), with an autobiographical sketch. Ref Southey, pp. 135-62, 199-202, Unwin, pp. 84-6, Klaus (1985), pp. 6-7, Shiach, p. 59, Rizzo, 243, Harvey, Christmas, pp. 210-12, 223-7, NCBEL II, Lonsdale (1984), pp. 726, 853n, ESTC, BL 1162.k.13; BL G.19035, EPFTD; Heinzelmann, 115-17. [LC 3]

Buchanan, David (1811-93), of Hillhead, Dunbartonshire, handloom weaver, and manufacturer, pub. Man and the years, and other poems, ed. by William Freeland (Glasgow, 1895). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 72. [S]

Buchanan, David (b. 1844), of Dundee, farmworker, van-driver, shipyard storekeeper, religious poet, poems in Edwards. Ref   Edwards, 6 (1883), pp. 328-33. [S]

Buchanan, Francis (b. 1825), of Perth, draper, moved to Sheffield, later incapacitated by an accident, pub. Sparks from Sheffield smoke: a series of local and other poems (Sheffield, 1882). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 72. [S]

? Burgess, Alexander (d. 1885), ‘The Fife Paganini’, largely self-taught dancing teacher, fiddler and poet, pub. The Book of Nettercaps: Or Poutery, Poetry and Prose, and in the People’s Journal, his verses ‘characterised by a grotesque orthography that was as suggestive of latent, lurking fun as the ideas were thoroughly original and humorous to the degree of burlesque’ (Edwards). Ref Edwards 1 (1880) and 9 (1886), pp. xxii-xxiii. [S]

Burgess, Joseph (1853-1934), factory operative, of Oldham, later Failsworth, Manchester, worked in mills from age eight, later a journalist, pub. “In memory of my wife”: a volume of amatory and elegiac verse (London, Manchester and Oldham, 1875), Pictures of social life: being select poems, by “The Droylsden Bard” (Manchester and London, 1869), A Potential Poet? His Autobiography and verse (Ilford, 1927). Ref Maidment (1987), pp. 91-3, Reilly (2000), p. 71. [LC 6]

? Burland, John Hugh (1819-85), Chartist, member of Barnsley Mechanics’ Institute, businessman, school warden, pub. John Hugh Barland to John Close and the grand cluster of poets: (a satire) (?1868). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 71.

? Burlend, Edward, of Swillington, then at Barwick-in-Elmet, West Riding, pub. Village rhymes: or, poems on variousn subjects, frequently appertaining to incidents in village life, new enlarged edn (Leeds, 1869). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 71.

Burnett, Willam Hall (b. 1840), of Blackburn, of poor parents, largely self-taught journalist and poet, pub. a poem, The Polytechnic, when aged 17, and many prose works. Ref Hull, pp. 314-19.

Burns, David, joiner, pub. Scottish Echoes from New Zealand (Edinburgh, 1883). Ref Edwards, 14 (1891), pp. 387-91. [S]

Burns, Robert (1759-1796). Ref Wilson, I, pp. 349-73, Tinker, pp. 104-11, Crawford, passim, Rizzo, 242, Cafarelli, 81-3, Richardson, pp. 250-2, Harvey, Powell, item 135, Jarndyce, items 1325-30, EPFT, Christmas, pp. 32-5. [S] [LC 3]

Burns, Thomas (b. 1848), of Eckford, Roxburghshire, self-taught farm-worker, later a police officer in Newcastle upon Tyne, pub. Chimes from nature, Introduction by James Graham Potter (Newcastle upon Tyne, 1887). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 77. [S]

Burnside, Thomas (1822-79), of Paisley, weaver, shopkeeper, didn’t start writing until aged 40, pub. posthumously Lays from the Loom (Paisley, 1889). Ref Brown, Leonard, pp. 311-18. [S]

Burr, James, ‘Quilquox’ (b. 1863), of Tarves, shoemaker, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 10 (1887), pp. 204-8. [S]

Butler, Ann (b. 1829), of Abystree, Llawhaden, Pembroke, humble family, Sunday school educated, pub. A selection of sacred poems, ed. by G. S[mith] (London, 1878). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 74. [W] [F]

? Button, Mary,   mentioned by Ashraf, nothing further known. Ref Ashraf (1978), I, p. 37. [F]

A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  Y

Cairns, Arthur (b. 1840), of Dundee, spinnr, powerloom tenter, worked in India in a jute factory, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 6 (1883), pp. 96-101. [S]

? Calder, Robert MacLean (1841-95), of Duns, Berwickshire, draper, emigrated to America, returning in 1882 to work in shoe-trimming and embroidery trade, pub. A Berwickshire bard: the songs and poems of Robert MacLean Calder, ed. by W. S. Crockett (Paisley and London, 1897). Ref Crockett, pp. 254-60; Reilly (1994), p. 81; Edwards, 12 (1889), pp. 42-9. [S]

Calder, William, pub. Poems, Moral and Miscellaneous, with a Few Songs. By a Journeyman Mechanic (Edinburgh, 1863). [S] [LC 5]

Cameron, Archibald (d. 1887), of Edinburgh, builder’s clerk in London, disabled by rheumatism, admiitted to workhouse, ‘died in Dartmouth infirmary after thre years as an inmate’ (Reilly), pub. An invalid’s pastime: musings in the infirmary ward (London, 1878). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 80. [S]

Cameron, William C. (1822-89), of Dumbarton-castle, son of a sergeant and schoolmaster, stable boy, shoemaker, foreman in Glasgow, bankrupt businessman, employed in Menzies, Glasgow, pub. Light, shade and toil: poems, with an Introductory note by W.C. Smith (Glasgow and London, 1875). [This could be the ‘W.C. Cameron’ who was ‘a fireman in Backhall Factory—a coarse fellow’, and pub. Mall Jamieson’s Ghost, or The Elder’s Dream, founded on fact, with other Poems (Paisley, 1844), if Leonard’s ‘fireman’ were a typo for ‘foreman’.] Ref Reilly (2000), p. 80; Leonard, p. 180, Brown, I); Edwards, 3 (1881), pp. 274-8 and 12 (1889), p. xxii; Murdoch, pp. 217-21. [S]

Campbell, Archibald (b. 1855), of Dumbarton, painter, ‘the poet-laureate of football players’. Ref Edwards, 14 (1891), pp. 66-9. [S]

Campbell, Duncan, Miscellaneous Poems and Songs (Carlisle: George Irwin, 1825), cotton spinner. His only publication, copy in Bodleian Library. Ref: inf Bob Heyes.

Campbell, Mrs Elizabeth (1804-78), of Quarryland, nr. Castle Vane, Edzell, ploughman’s daughter, cow-tender, whin-gatherer, in service at seven, later cook, weaver (Wilson locates her in Tannadice, Forfarshire, a ‘poetess in humble life...entirely self-taught’), pub. Burns’ centenary: an ode, and other poems (Arbroath, 1862), Poems (four series, Arbroath, 1862, 1863, 1865 and 1867), Songs of My Pilgrimage, with an Introduction by George Gilfillan, and autobiographical sketch and photograph (Edinburgh, 1875). Ref Wilson, II, pp. 514-15, Reilly (2000), p. 81. [S] [F]

Campbell, Gavin (1761-1817). [LC 3] [S]

Campbell, George, shoemaker poet, pub. Poems on Several Occasions (Kilmarnock, 1787). Ref ESTC 1811 # 5. [S]

Campbell, John, ‘Will Harrow’ (b. 1808), of Kinclaven, Perthshire, agricultural labourer, Chartist, pub. poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 3 (1881), pp. 164-7. [S]

Campbell, John (b. 1846), of Kilburnie, Ayrshire, compositor, poems in Edwards. Ref  Edwards, 6 (1883), pp. 200-205. [S]

Campbell, John, of Oban, Argyllshire, worked in a Glasgow warehouse, later postmaster at Ledaig, often wrote in Gaelic, pub. Yggdrassill and other poems (London, 1898). Ref   Edwards, 6 (1883), pp. 35-48; Reilly (1994), p. 83. [S]

Campbell, Thomas, of Lisburn, County Down, millworker, pub. Lays from Lisnagarvey (Belfast, 1884). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 84. [I]

Candler, Ann (1740-1814), of Yoxford, Suffolk, daughter of a glover, pub. Poetical Attempts...with a short narrative of her life, by Ann Candler, a Suffolk Cottager (Ipswich and London, 1803). Ref Jackson (1993), pp. 49-50, Cranbrook, pp. 53, 173. [F] [LC 4]

Canning, Dan (b. 1851), of Glasgow, printer, singer, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 3 (1881), pp. 363-4. [S]

Capern, Edward (1819-94), ‘The Rural Postman of Bideford’, of Tiverton, Devon, baker’s son, worked in a lace-factory, then as a letter-carrier, later lectured in the midlands, author of Poems (2nd edn 1856, 3rd edn, London, 1859); The Devonshire melodist: a collection of original songs by Edward Capern, rural postman, Bideford, Devon, transcribed for the voice and pianoforte, under the author's direction, by T. Murby (London: Boosey & Sons, [1861]); Wayside Warbles (London, 1865; 2nd edn, London and Birmingham 1870); Sungleams and shadows (London and Birmingham, 1881); The Postman’s Poems [Selections] (Bristol: Bellman Press, 1939). Ref William Ormond, Recollections of Edward Capern (Bristol, [1860?]); W. Ormond, An Hour with Edward Capern. An Address (Bristol: Taylor, n.d., c. 1860s.), 22 pp; Maidment (1987), pp. 137, 147-9, Miles, X, p. xiv, Wright, pp. 71-3, Reilly (1994), p. 85, Reilly (2000), p. 83. [LC 5]

Carmichael, Daniel (b. 1826), of Alloa, Clackmannanshire, son of stonemason, engineer on Clydeside and Merseyside, pub. Cosietattle, and other poems (Liverpool, 1888), Rhyming lilts and Doric lays (1880). Ref Edwards, 9 (1886), pp. 88-96; Murdoch, pp. 201-6; Reilly (1994), p. 85. [S]

Carmichael, Peter, station-master at Douglas, Lanarkshire, pub. Clydesdale poems (Hamilton and Glasgow, 1884). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 86 (who gives birthdate as 1897, but that can’t be right). [S]

? Carmichael, Rebekah, later Hay (fl. 1790-1806), orphaned young, left destitute as a widow, Burns subscribed to her Poems (Edinburgh, 1790). Ref Lonsdale (1989), pp. 445-7. [S] [F]

Carnegie, David (1826-91), of Arbroath, Forfarshire, bookseller’s messenger, handloom then powerloom weaver, pub. Lays and lyrics from the factory (Arbroath, 1861, 1879). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 83. [S]

Carr, James, boot and shoemaker of Ipswich, author of a poem on the Crimean veterans, c. 1859, pub. Heroes Wreaths (Ipswich, 1857). Ref Cranbrook, pp. 144, 173.

Carrick, John Donald (1787-1837), of Glasgow, of humble parents, worked variously in Glasgow and London, in an architect’s office, a pottery, and opened a china/stoneware establisment, later travelling agent and a journalist, wrote songs pub. in Whistle-Binkie, and a collection of Scottish anecdotes, The Laird of Logan (1835), Powell, item 148. Ref Wilson, II, pp. 91-3. [S]

Carroll, John, of Dublin, boot and shoemaker, pub. Circular of the poet shoemaker: being a few poems promiscuously selected from the volume preparing for publication (Dublin, 1860). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 86. [I]

Carter, Thomas (b. 1792), author of The Tailor (1840); Memoirs of a Working Man (London, 1845), A Continuation of the Memoirs of a Working Man (London, c. 1850). Ref Cross, pp. 128, 151-2, Vincent, p. 35.

? Carter, William, Lieutenant in the 40th Regiment of Foot, author of The Disbanded Subaltern, an Epistle (?1780), BL; Dobell 2800; A Genuine Detail of the Several Engagements...during the years 1775 and 1776 (1784; BL C.33.g.31).

? Carter, William, hairdresser of Manchester, pub. Rhythmical essays on the beard question (London, Liverpool and Manchester, 1868). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 86.

Castillo, John (1792-1845), born in Rathfarnum, nr Dublin, died at Pickering, Yorkshire; of poor Catholic parentage, embraced Methodism and became a fiercely puritanical preacher; pub. The Bard of the Dales: Or, Poems and Miscellaneous Pieces, partly in the Yorkshire Dialect (1850). Ref inf Kaye Kossick; Ashraf, I, pp. 33-4. [I] [LC 5]

? Caulfeild, J, late Cornet of the Queen’s Regiment of Dragoon Guards, author of The Manners of Paphos, or, Triumph of Love (1777), Dobell 2808; BL 643.k.6(6); BL 161.l.21; BL 992.g.1(6); BL

? Chadwick, [R.] Sheldon, son of Jeremiah Chadwick, city missionary of Manchester, Chartist poet, lived in London, author of a ‘Labourer’s Anthem’ printed in Red Republican, I (1850) p. 56, pub. Working and singing: poems, lyrics and songs on the life-march (London, 1895). Ref James, p. 175, Ashraf (1975), pp. 221-3, Scheckner, pp. 126-7, Reilly (1994), p. 89.

Chalmers, Robert (b. 1862), of Aberdeen, ropemaker from age eight, pub. in newspapers and in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 9 (1886), pp. 326-30. [S]

Chambers, James, (b. 1748), of Soham, Cambridgeshire, pedlar and net-maker, seller of verses and acrostics, The poetical works of James Chambers, itinerant poet with the life of the author (Ipswich, 1820). Ref Johnson, item 177 (gives information from the Suffolk Garland), Cranbrook, pp. 58, 174-5.

? Chandler, Mary (1687-1745), daughter of a Dissenting Minister, Malmesbury, Wilts., milliner, self-educated poet, pub. A Description of Bath: a poem. In a letter to a friend (London, 1736). Ref Foxon, C107, Lonsdale (1989), pp. 151-5, Fullard, p. 552, EPFTD, Burmester, p. 110, Rowton pp. 125-6, Christmas, p. 31. [F]

Chandler, Reuben, ‘a working man of School House, 8 Pinfold Street. near New Street, Birmingham’, pub. Onward & upward: temperance poetry, melodies, recitations, rhymes, and dialogues, with religious and moral musings, 2nd edn (London and Birmingham, 1862), The temperance life-boat crew reciter and melodist, 2nd enlarged edn (London, Manchester and Birmingham, 1867). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 90.

Chapman, James (1835-88), of Upper Banchory, Kincardineshire, son of a blacksmith, farm worker, asylum attendant, later worked in a detective office and as a sanitary officer in Partick, pub. A legend of the isles, and other poems (Partick and Edinburgh, 1878), ‘Ecce homo’ and other poems (Partick, 1883), The Scots o’ lansyne, and other poems (Glasgow, 1888). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 90, Reilly (2000), p. 91, Edwards, 2 (1881), pp. 318-23 and 12 (1889), p. xxii; Murdoch, pp. 296-302. [S]

Chapman, Thomas (‘Joseph’) (1844-88), of Falla, Lanarkshire, self-educated, cowherd, ploughman, policeman, rising to Sergeant, pub. Contentment and other poems (Kelso, 1883). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 91. [S]

Charlton, John, (‘Little John the Poet’, 1804–-c. 1883), cobbler poet and singer, of Blackburn, born in Lymm, Cheshire. Ref Hull, pp. 153-9.

Chatt, George (d. 1890), of Hexham, Northumberland, agricultural labourer, soldier, edited West Cumberland Times, pub. Miscellaneous Poems (Hexham, 1866). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 92.

Chatterton, Thomas (1752-1770), Powell, item 152, EPFTD. [LC 2]

Chicken, Edward (1698-1746), author of The Collier’s Wedding (Newcastle upon Tyne, 173?), Foxon C147, Lonsdale (1984), pp. 216-18, 843n, reprinted 1829, variant text printed in David Wright (ed) The Penguin Book of Everyday Verse; No;...This is the Truth (1741, Foxon C148). Ref ESTC, Allan. pp. 5-7, Klaus (1985), pp. 62-4; Welford, I, pp. 546-9. [LC 1]

Chippendale, Thomas (d. 1889), of Waddington near Clitheroe, orphaned and moved to Blackburn, weaver, insurance agent, moved to Nelson then Edinburgh. Ref Hull, pp. 355-61.

Chisholm, Walter (1856-77), Berwickshire shepherd lad, leather warehouse porter, pub. in newpapers, and pub. Poems, by the late Walter Chisholm, ed. with a prefactory notice, by William Cairns (Edinburgh and Haddington, 1879). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 93; Edwards, 2 (1881), pp. 62-7; Crockett, pp. 198-204. [S]

Christie, J. Knox , of Paisley, printer’s assistant, postman, bookseller, pub. Many moods in many measures: peoms in fifty varieties of verse (Glasgow, 1877). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 95, Murdoch, pp. 373-8. [S]

Christie, William (‘Stable Boy’), of Hexham, Northumberland, pub. Three leal and lowly laddies: Mauricewood pit disaster, Midlothian, September 1889 [poems ‘to the memory of three pony boys, by a stable boy’] (Manchester, 1889). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 93 (Manchester Public Library).

? Clancy, L.T., Chartist poet, author of a collection of poems, Scraps for the Radicals, pub. in The Northern Star. Ref Kovalev, p. 111, Scheckner, pp. 128, 331.

Clapham, William, Yorkshireman ‘of humble birth’, pub. The first selection of the Yorkshire gems of poetry (Leeds, 1866). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 96.

Clare, John (1793-1864), Poems Descriptive of Rural Life (1820), The Village Minstrel (1821), The Shepherd’s Calendar (1827), The Rural Muse (1835). Ref Unwin, pp. 121-42, Ashraf (1975), pp. 137-42, Shiach, pp. 61-7, Cafarelli, 84-5, Phillips, arvey, Richardson, pp. 251-8, Goodridge (1999), item 19, EPFTD, Miles, III, p. 79, [LC 4]

Clark, Charles Allen (‘Teddy Ashton’) (1863-1935), of Bolton, Lancashire, working-class parents, worked in cotton mill, journalist, edited popular Teddy Ashton’s Weekly, wrote communist fiction, founder of Lancashire Authors’ Association, pub. ‘Voices’ and other verses (London and Manchester, 1895). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 95.

? Clark [or Clarke], Ewan, author of Miscellany Poems (Whitehaven, 1779); The Rustic, a poem in four cantos (1805). Ref CBEL II; inf. Brian Maidment, Johnson, item 18.

Clark, Hugh, ‘Heone’ (b. 1832), of Ardrossan, Ayrshire, farmboy, shopman, pub. Poems for the Period (1881). Ref Edwards, 6 (1883), pp. 352-62. [S]

? Clark, J, author of Bethlem a Poem. By a Patient (1744, Foxon C225, ?only copy in Guildhall Library, Dobell 301). Ref Foxon, Dobell.

Clark, Robert (1811-47), of Paisley, weaver, emigrated to America, returned to Scotland, but sailed for America again and ship sunk, pub. Original Poetical Pieces, Chiefly Scottish (Paisley, 1836), Random Rhymes (1842). Ref Brown, Leonard, pp. 182-3. [S]

? Clavel, John (1603-1642), highwayman poet, A Recantation of an ill led Life (1628).

Cleaver, Thomas, Night and Other Poems (1848) Ref Maidment (1987), p. 124-6.

Cleghorn, Jane (b. 1827), of Port Glasgow, orphaned daughtre of a shipmaster, self-taught, hairdresser, pub. poems in Glasgow newspapers and in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 6 (1883), pp. 366-70. [S] [F]

? Clephan, James (1804-88), of Monkwearmouth Shore, son of a baker, apprentice printer and bookseller, editor of the Gateshead Observer, pub. Hareshaw burn; Evening on Hexham “seal” and other poems (Stockton-on-Tees, 1861), The bishop’s raid, with other poems (Newcastle upon Tyne, 1864). Ref Allan, p. 43, Welford, I, p. 593-6, Reilly (2000), p. 97.

? Close, Francis (1797-1882), evangelical popular preacher, ‘Our Poet’ (Davis, Life of Duck, p. 104).

? Close, John (1816-91), of Gunnerside, Swaledale, Yorkshire, son of a butcher and lay preacher, later printer and bookseller, got a Civil List pension, pub. Poet Cloas‘s Christmas book, containing, Memorial of His Late Royal Highnes Prince Albert; the black man’s visit to Poet Close; Drops from the spring; new sketches, new poems; Capt. Hudson’s mesmerism, &c (Kirkby Stephen, 1862), Poet Close in Carlisle and Scotland; and, a night with Jacob Thompson, the celebrated Westmoreland painter; Shap Abbey, and the “Wise Men” of Kendal; Grand cluster of the Barnsley poets, &c. (Kirkby Stephen, 1866), Poet Close’s new poem on the late awful fire at his bookstall, Bowness, Kirkby Stephen, Westmorland (?Kirkby Stephen, 1875). Ref Reilly (2000), pp. 98-9.

Close, John George, linen wrapper of Belfast, pub. Echoes of the valley (Belfast, 1879). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 99. [I]

Clounie, Thomas (b. 1867), of Kirkcudbright then Blackburn, draper. Ref Hull, pp. 440-5. [S]

Coaker, Jonas (1801-1890), The Dartmoor poet, servant-boy, later labourer, publican, parish tax-collector, most of his work printed in fragments but pub. A Sketch of the several Denominations in the Christian World; with a short account of Atheism, Judaism, and Mahometanism [verse] (Tavistock, 1871).   Ref Wright, pp. 99-101.

Coates, James, labourer, Bridlington-Quay, a descriptive poem (2nd edn., Scarborough, 1813); A description of Burlington Key and Neighborhood [in verse] (Gainsborough, 1805); A pathetic elegy on the death of W. Brown and C. Choddick, who suffered on the tempestuous night of Oct 30th, 1807, while engaged in the herring-fishery (York, 1808). Ref Johnson, items 192-3.

Cochran, John, of Paisley, drawboy, weaver, coal seller; pieces in newspapers. Ref Brown. [S]

Cock, James (b. 1752), of Elgin, weaver, became overseer at linen factory in 1796, Hamespun lays, or the simple strains of an untutored muse (1806; Aberdeen, 1810, 1824); Simple strains; or the homespun lays of an untutored muse (Aberdeen, 1810). Ref Johnson, items 198-9, Edwards, 2 (1881), pp. 181-2. [S]

Coldwell, Peter (1811-1892), of Lauder, grocer, wrote humorous poems and recitations, pub. in Crockett. Ref Crockett, pp. 335-9. [S]

Cole, Charles, described as ‘The Weaver of Keighley’, but on the title page of Political...poems as ‘a London Mechanic’, by Ashraf as a ‘mechanic’, and by Sheckner as a ‘Little-known worker-poet’—so this may possibly be a conflation of two authors. Pub. Political and other poems (London: W.C. Mantz, 1833, 2nd edn 1834, both these in BL); ‘A poetical address to his grace the Duke of Wellington’ (1835); poems in the radical papers in the 1840s and 1859s (see Scheckner). Ref Ashraf (1978), I, pp. 13, 24, 43-4; Kovalev, pp. 120-1, Scheckner, 129-32, 331, inf. Bob Heyes.

Collier, Mary (1688?-1762), author of The Woman’s Labour (1739); ed. Moira Ferguson (Augustan Reprint Society, 1985); ed. E.P. Thompson (Merlin, 1989); Poems (1762 and ?1820). Ref Lonsdale (1984), pp. 325-6; Donna Landry, ‘The Resignation of Mary Collier’, in Felicity Nussbaum and Laura Brown (eds), The New Eighteenth Century, (1987) and in The Muses of Resistance, William J. Christmas, ‘An Emendation to Mary Coller’s The Woman’s Labour”, Notes and Queries, 246 (March 2001), 35-8, Unwin, pp. 73-4, Tinker, pp. 94-5, Lonsdale (1989), pp. 171-3, Fullard, p. 553, Klaus (1985), pp. 3-18, Rizzo, 243, Shiach, pp. 51-3, Phillips, 214-16; Milne (1999), pp. 100-38, Harvey, Christmas, pp. 115-29, Milne (2001); Keegan (2003). [F] [LC 1]

? Collier, Mary, housemaid, Poetic Effusions, by M. Peach (Derby: printed for the authoress, 1823; 1835, 1847, 1851). The first edition appeared in 1823 and the pieces composed in intervening years added to the later editions. The publishing information indicates that this is not the C18th poet. Bodleian catalogue specifies her as ‘Mary Collier, of Belper’. Ref Johnson, item 205; <>. [F]

Colling, Mary Maria (1805-53), of Tavistock, Devon, daughter of a husbandman, self-taught, patronised by Anna Bray, author of Fables and Other Pieces in Verse...with some account of the author, in letters to Robert Southey by Mrs Bray (London, 1831), subscribers include Wordsworth. Ref Southey, pp. 212-3, Jackson (1993), p. 83, ABC, pp. 271-2, Burmester, item 378. [F] [LC 5]

? Collins, Emmanuel (b. ?1712), author of Miscellanies in Prose and Verse (Bristol, 1762). Ref Lonsdale (1984), pp. 500-1; Meyerstein, A Life of Thomas Chatterton, p. 81.

Collins, George Thomas (b. 1844), of Southampton then Blackburn, brush maker, pub. in Blackburn newspapers. Ref Hull, pp. 264-71, which includes an unpublished autobiographical statement.

? Collins, John (1742-1808), tailor’s son, Scripscrapologia: or Collins’s doggerel dish of all sorts (Birmingham, 1804). Ref NCBEL, DNB, EPFTD. Johnson, item 207.

Collins, Samuel (1802-78), of Hollinwood, near Manchester, ‘The Bard of Hale Moss’, weaver and wrote verses in Lancashire dialect, pub. The wild floweret (Manchester, 1875), Limerick races, as sung by Sam Collins (1860?). Ref DNB. Reilly (2000), p. 103.

Connell, Philip, attended a ‘hedge school’ in Ireland, pub. Poaching on Parnassus: a collection of original poems (Manchester and London, 1865) Ref. Maidment (1987), pp. 99, 150, 152-4, Reilly (2000), p. 104. [I]

? Constantine, Henry, of Carlton, Yorkshire, ‘The Coverdale Bard’, pub. Rural poetry and prose (Beverley, 1867). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 105.

Cook, Andrew (b. 1836), of Paisley, compositor, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 12 (1889), pp. 268-71. [S]

  Cook, Eliza (1818-89), daughter and eleventh child of a Southwark Brewer, self-taught, established in 1849 Eliza Cook’s Journal, pub. Lays of a Wild Harp: A Collection of Metrical Pieces (London, 1835), BL 11644.a.49, New echoes, and other poems (London, 1864), Poems (1860, 1861), Poetical Works (London, 1870, 1882 and New York, 1882). Ref Rowton, pp. 480-95, Jackson (1993), p. 84, Reilly (1994), p. 103, Reilly (2000), p. 105. [F]

Cooke, Noah (b. 1831), of Kidderminster, ‘The weaver Poet’, of poor illiterate parents, carpet weaver, pub. Wild warblings (Kidderminster, 1876). Refs Ashton & Roberts, ch. 6, pp. 70-75, Reilly (2000), pp. 106-7. [LC 6]

Cooper, George (1829-76), painter, flaxdresser, soldier, humorous poet, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 6 (1883), pp. 72-7. [S]

Cooper, Joseph (1810-90), of Thornsett, New Mills, Derbyshire, orphaned at seven and had to work, pub. The temperance minstrel: original melodies (Manchester, 1877); . Ref Reilly (2000), p. 107; Samuel Laycock, ‘To my Friend, Joseph Cooper, the Derbyshire Bard’ .

Cooper, Thomas (‘Adam Hornbook’), (1805-92), shoemaker, of Leicester then Gainsborough, Chartist poet, pub. The Purgatory of Suicides: A Prison Rhyme (1845), ‘Sonnets on the Death of Allen Davenport, by a Brother Bard and Shoemaker’, The Northern Star, 5th December 1846, The Life of Thomas Cooper. Written by Himself (1872). Other pubs include Wise Saws and Modern Instances (1845), The Baron’s Yule Feast. A Christmas rhyme (1846), Captain Cobller; or the Lincolnshire Rebellion. An Historical Romance of the reign of Henry VIII (1850), Eight Letters to the Young Men of the Working Classes (1851), The Belief in a Personal God and a Future Life (1860), A Calm Inquiry into the Nature of Deity (1864), The Bridge of History over the Gulf of Time (1871), Plain Pulpit Talk (1872), God, the Soul, and a Future State (1873), A Paradise of Martyrs (1873), Old Fashioned Stories (1874), The Verity of Christ’s Resurrection from the Dead (1875), The Verity and Value of the Miracles of Christ (1876), Poetical Works (1877), Evolution, the Stone Book, and the Mosaic Record of Creation (1878), The Atonement and other discourses (1880), Thoughts at Fourscore, and Earlier. A medley (1885). Ref Winks, pp. 190-228, Kovalev, pp. 87-8, Cross, pp. 128-9, 150-6, James, pp. 172, 175-6, Maidment (1983), 79, Maidment (1987), pp. 57-9, 127-32; Vicinus (1974), pp. 108-12, 159, 189, Ashraf (1975), p. 173, Ashraf (1978), I, pp. 36-7; Scheckner, pp. 133-7, 331-2, Zlotnick, pp. 176-7; Janowitz, esp. 166-73, Vincent, p. 146-7, 194, Goodridge (1999), item 21, NCBEL III, pp. 516-7, EPFTD, Miles, X, p. xiv, Reilly (2000), p. 107. [LC 5]

Cope, Elijah (1842-1917), of Ipstones, Staffs, gardener‘s son, wood carver; pub. ‘An Elegy on the Late George Heath’; Poems by Elijah Cope of Leek (Leek, 1875). Ref Staffs. Poets, pp. 248-50.

? Copland, William (b. 1837), of Strichen, Aberdeenshire, saddler’s son, became a parish teacher, pub. Vacation rhymes and verses, chiefly relating to the district of Buchan (Dundee, 1866). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 108. [S]

Corbet, Denys (1826-1909), of Vale, Guernsey, seafaring father died, drafted into militia, left as apacifist, became parish shoolteacher, farmer, pub. Le feuilles de la Foret: ou, recueil de poesie original, en Anglais, Francais, et Guernesias (Guerney, 1871). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 108.

Corvan, Edward (c. 1830-65), of Newcastle (born in Liverpool), popular entertainer and prolific dialect songwriter, apprenticed as a sailmaker, then a member of Billy Purvis’s company, later a publican, pub. Works (1872). Ref Allan, pp. 387-446.

Costley, Thomas (1837-1900), of Magaberry, Belfast, of poor parents, hand-loom handkerchief weaver in Belfast, Glasgow, Salford, later estate agent, poor law guardian, pub. Sketches of Southport, and other poems (Manchester, 1889). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 108. [I] [S]

? Coupe, Joseph, ‘jack-of-all-trades’ and possible co-author of ‘Jone o’ Grinfilt’s Ramble’. Ref Vicinus (1969), 31-2.

Cowan, John (b. 1840), of Paisley, boilermaker, spirit dealer, poems uncollected. Ref Brown. [S]

Cowper, William (1812-86), of Laurencekirk, Kincardineshire, taught by his mother, weaver, teacher, pub. At midnight with the book and the stars, and other poems (Montrose, Edinburgh and London, 1874). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 113; Edwards 1 (1880) and 9 (1886), p. xxii. [S]

Coyle, Matthew (b. 1862), ‘The Smiddy Muse’, of Arva, County Cavan, lived in Scotland from infancy, blacksmith, poems in newspapers and in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 14 (1891), pp. 215-19. [I] [S]

Craig, John (b. 1851), of Burrelton, Coupar Angus, agricultural labourer, fruit-grower, pub. in Dundee Weekly News and other papers. Ref Edwards, 2 (1881), pp. 121-3. [S]

Craw, William (1771-1816), of Chirnside, mason, sailor, pub. Poetical Epistles (Kilmarnock, 1809). Ref Crockett, pp. 107-9. [S]

Crawford, James Paul (1825-897), of Catrine, tailor in Glasgow, temperance poet and author of ‘The Drunkard’s Raggit Wean’. Ref Murdoch, pp. 188-92; Edwards 1 (1880), and 12 (1889), pp. xvi-xvii. [S]

Crawford, John (1816-73), of Greenock, house-painter, cousin once-removed of Burns’s ‘Highland Mary’, pub. Doric Lays: being Snatches of Song and Ballad (1850; 2nd ser 1860), also wrote non-verse Memorials of the Town of Alloa (1874). Ref Wilson, II, pp. 396-8, Reilly (2000), pp. 114-15. [S]

Crawford, John (b. 1851), of Carluke, Lanarkshire, opencast miner, cabinet-maker, poems in newspapers and in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 10 (1887), pp. 150-7. [S]

Crawford, William (b. 1803), of Paisley, weaver and soldier, pub. The Fates of Alceus: or Love’s Knight Errant. An Amatory Poem in five books, with other poetical pieces on various subjects (1828). Ref Brown. [S]

? Crealock, W.M., pub. Scraps by a sailor; or, rhymes of the land and sea (London, 1888). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 115.

Cresswell, Marshall (d. 1889), of Dudley colliery, pub. song collection with autobiographic sketch in 1876. Ref Allan, p. 512.

Crocker, Charles (1797-1861), of Chichester, shoemaker, The Vale of Obscurity, the Lavant and other poems (1834), Kingley Vale and Other Poems (Chichester, 1837). A Visit to Chichester Cathedral (1848), The Poetical Works of Charles Crocker (1860). Ref Winks, pp. 321-2, Harvey, Johnson, items 233-4, Reilly (2000), p. 116. [LC 5]

Cronshaw, Joseph, of Ancoats, Manchester, self-made working man, began as a barrow-boy and became a large merchant, pub. Dingle Cottage: Poems and Sketches (Manchester, 1908). Ref Maidment (1987), pp. 368-9. [OP]

Cross, William (1804-86), of Paisley, son of a handloom weaver, drawboy, pattern maker, manufacturer, journalist, pub. Songs and miscellaneous poems, written at rare intervals of leisure in the course of a busy life (Glasgow, 1882), poems in Whistle-Binkie, and a famous story, ‘The Disruption’. Ref Edwards, 6 (1883), pp. 19-28; Edwards, 9 (1886), pp. xxi-xxii; Reilly (1994), p. 118. [S]

Cruickshank, William (d. 1868), of Bauds of Montbletton, Gamrie, Banffshire, gardener’s son, molecatcher (‘The Rhyming Molecatcher’), pub. Charlie Neil, and other poems, chiefly in the Buchan dialect (Peterhead, 1869). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 117, Edwards, 2 (1881), pp. 192-5. [S]

? Cruse, Jesse, London postman, primitive-methodist lay-preacher, abstainer, numerous 30-page pubs. in 1890s including Labour of love: containing twelve original poems on moral & religious subjects (London, 1898), A poor man’s logic: containing twelve original poems on moral & sacred themes (London, 1896). Ref Reilly (1994), pp. 119-20.

Cryer, William, Lays After Labour (Bolton, Alfred Blackshaw, 1913), pp. 440, with guarded photo. Ref: <>, listing seen on 27.xi.01 [OP]

Cunningham, Allan (1784-1842), ‘The Nithsdale Mason’, friend of Hogg and Clare, misc. writer, pubs include Sir Marmaduke Maxwell ... and Twenty Scottish Songs (London: Taylor & Hessey, 1822). Ref Wilson, II, pp. 61-72, Douglas. pp. 302-3, Cafarelli, 84, Johnson, items 109, 373, 751, Jarndyce, items 1358-9, Goodridge (1999), item 26, Powell, items 171-4, EPFTD, Miles, X, p. xvii. [S]

? Cunningham, John (1729-93), cooper’s son, born Dublin, died in Newcastle upon Tyne, actor, playwright and poet, pub. Poems, Chiefly Pastoral (1766). Ref Allan, pp. 18-21; Welford, I, pp. 676-9; Powell, item 175; EPFTD. [I]

Cunningham, Thomas M. (1776-1834), of Culfaud, Kirkcunbright, mill-wright, later lived in Rotherham and London, and rose to chief clerk in an engineering firm; contributed verses to the Scots Magazine, Hogg’s Forest Minstrel, and the Edinburgh Magazine; pub. Har’st Kirn, and Other Poems and Songs (1797). Ref Wilson, I, pp. 537-40. [S]

? Curling, Mary Anne (b. c. 1796), daughter of a London tailor and a lace-cleaner, won a suit for breach of promise of marriage in 1819, against the Pastor of the Baptist Church in Oxford Street, pub. Poetical Pieces (Dover, 1831), Poetical Pieces...with some additional pieces (London, 1831). Ref Jackson (1993), p. 93. [F] [LC 5]

Currie, James (1829-90), of Selkirk, child textile-worker, soldier, lost his right arm in the Crimea, later post-runner, mill employee, pub. Wayside musings; or poems and songs (Selkirk, 1863), Poems and songs, with a biographical sketch by Charles Rogers (Glasgow, 1883). Ref Edwards, 3 (1881), pp. 117-21; Reilly (1994), pp. 120-1, Reilly (2000), 119. [S]

Curtis, G. (fl. 1850s-60s), of Oxford, pub. [with T.L. Aldridge] Poem dedicated to the working men of England; by two of their order, second enlarged edition [cover title Golden moments] (London and Oxford, 1861). Ref Reilly (2000), pp. 7-8.

? Cuthbertson, David (b. 1856), of Kilmarnock, Ayrshire, draper’s shop worker, clerk, librarian, pub. Eskdale lyrics (Edinburgh, 1878), Rosslyn lyrics (Edsnburgh, 1878). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 120. [S]

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Dalby, J.W., radical, wrote for Black Dwarf and for Leigh Hunt’s publication, pub. Poems (London: Printed for the Author, 1822), Tales, Songs and Sonnets (1866). Inf Bob Heyes.

Dakers, Robert A., ‘D.A.R.’ (b. 1865), of Creiff, later of Haddington then Edinburgh, weaver’s son, compositor, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 14 (1891), pp. 144-9. [S]

Dale, Sarah (‘Essdee’), neé Schofield, of Ashton-under-Lyne, taught to read and write by her mother, cotton mill worker, pub. Adelia and other poems (Ashton-under-Lyne, 1883), Merriky letters, with other rhymes of old and new England, by Essdee (Huddersfield, 189_?). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 124. [F]

Daly, John, of Blackburn, tentatively identified as the fellow ‘factory bard’ of Richard Rawcliffe’s ‘In Blackburn Park—To Flora’, and clearly identified in Daly’s reply ‘The Voice of Flora—In Blackburn Park’ [c. 1891]. Ref Hull, pp. 202-4.

? Danby, Charles, C19th poet, member of ‘Nottingham Group’, ‘Poet of local reputation’. Ref James, p. 171. [Warning: I can find no other trace of this one--JG]

? Dare, Joseph, glovemaker, listed by Ashraf as among ‘the most active radical and socialist organisers and poets of the 1820-ies and 1830-ies’. Not sure if this is the same person as the Joseph Dare (b. 1800) who was a radical reformer in Leicester, b. 1800, who certainly wrote verse (The Garland of Gratitude, 1849). Ref Ashraf (1978), I, p. 24; <>.

Davenport, Allen (1775-1846), London Chartist and shoemaker, Claremont, or the sorrows of a prince. An elegiac poem [on the death of Princess Charlotte] (1821?), The Muse’s Wreath (1827), The Life, Writings, and Principles of Thomas Spence (1836). Ref Kovalev, pp. 122-4, Scheckner, pp. 138-40, 332; Janowitz, esp. pp. 115-32, 159-64; Worrall, esp. pp. 77-88. [LC 4]

? Davidson, Elizabeth (1828-73), of Thornhill, Dumfriesshire, ‘in poor circumstances’ (Reilly), became a teacher, married a gardener, pub. Miscellaneous poems (Edinburgh, 1866), The death of King Theodore, and other poems (1874). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 124. [S] [F]

? Davidson, James (b. 1829), ‘The Buchan Poet’, of Logie Buchan, Aberdeenshire, son of a mason, orphaned at nine, shopkeeper, reporter, pub. Poems, chiefly in the Buchan dialect (Aberdeen, Banff, Peterhead, Fraserburgh and New Pitsligo, 1861). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 125. [S]

Davidson, John (1825-60), of Maxton, Roxburghshire, carpenter, pub. Poems (Kelso, 1860). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 125. [S]

? Davidson, John (1857-1909), of Barrhead, pub. In a Music Hall and other Poems (London, 1891), Fleet Street Eclogues (1893-6), Poems, ed. A. Turnbull (Edinburgh and London: Scottish Academic Press, 1973). Ref Ashraf (1975), pp. 279-91, Leonard, pp. 346-59, Miles, VIII, p. 349, Ricks, pp. 600-3, EPFTD. [S] [LC 6]

? Davidson, George, pub. ‘Thoughts on Peel Park’, The Bradfordian, 1 (October 1861), p. 198. Ref Vicinus (1974), pp. 150-1, 180n.

Davidson, Margaret (d. c. 1781), of Killinchy, Ballybreda, daughter of poor uneducated parents, blinded by smallpox at two, self-taught flax-spinner, self-converted Methodist, pub. The Extraordinary Life and Christian Experience of Margaret Davidson, (as Dictated by Herself) Who Was a Poor, Blind Woman among the People Called Methodists, but Rich towards God, and Illuminated with the Light of Life. To Which are Added, Some of Her Letters and Hymns (Dublin, 1782). Ref Jackson (1993), p. 97. [I] [F]

Davis, Francis (1810-85), ‘The Belfast Man’, of Ballincollig, County Cork, muslin weaver in Belfast, wrote for and edited periodicals, given small Civil List pension, pub. A phantasy and other poems (London, Dublin, Edinburgh and Belfast, 1861), The tablet of shadows; A phantasy, and other poems (London, Dublin, Edinburgh and Belfast, 1861), Leaves from our cypress and our oak (London, 1863),   Ref Reilly (2000), p. 127. [I]

? Davys, Mary (1674-1732), wife of friend of Swift, of very uncertain origins, after the early death of her husband kept a coffee house in Cambridge (also the author of novels). Ref Carpenter, p. 135. [F]

Dawson, James, jun. (1840-1906), of Hartshead, near Ashton-under-Lyne, Lancs, farmer’s son, agricultural labourer, dialect poet, ‘a working man’ (Harland), later a journalist in Manchester and London, pub. Facts and Fancies from the Farm: Lyrical Poems (1868). Ref Harland, pp. 441-2, 469-70, Maidment (1987), pp. 274-5, Hollingworth, p. 153, Reilly (2000), pp. 127-8.

? Dawson, William Henderson, of Newcastle, bookbinder and poet, writer on local history and song. Ref Allan, pp. 484-90.

Deans, George (b. 1851), of Fogo, tenant farmer’s son, cow-herder, newspaper reporter, pub. Harp Strums (Kelso, 1890). Ref Crockett, pp. 265-9. [S]

? Dearnley, William, of Sowerby Bridge, West Yorkshire, pub. The power loom weaver, being a reply to the factory child (Halifax, ?1865). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 129.

? Deer, James, ?thatcher, pub. Occasional Poems by the Thatcher of Risby (Bury St Edmunds, [c. 1864]), pp. 20. Ref Cranbrook, pp. 187.

Delday, William (b. 1855), of Quoybelloch, Deerness, Orkney, farmer, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 12 (1889), 39-41.[S]

Denholm, Agnes Mack (b. 1854), domestic servant, poems in Crockett. Ref Crockett, pp. 270-3. [S] [F]

? Denning, John Renton (‘J.A.N’) served as a private in the Rifle Brigade, in India, c. 1878, pub. Poems and Songs (Bombay, 1888), ‘Soldierin’’: a few military ballads (Bombay, 1899). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 133.

Derfel, Robert Jones (‘Munullog’) (1824-1905), of Llandderfel, hand loom weaver, moved to Manchester, 1843, learned English and became travelling salesman, pub three vols of Welsh verse between 1861 and 1865, political activist, prominent in Manchester Cambrian Literary Society , pub. Hymns and songs for the church of man (Manchester, 1890), Musing for the masses (Manchester, 1895), Social songs (Manchester, 1890). Ref Ashton & Roberts, p. 6. note 11, Reilly (1994), p. 134, Cass, Eddie, ‘Robert Jones Derfel: A Welsh Poet, in the Cotton Factory Times', Llafur, 7, no. 2 (1996), 53-67. [W] [LC 6]

? Dermody, Thomas (1775-1802), ‘The Irish Chatterton’, poet, son of a Ennis schoolmaster, died young; The Life of Thomas Dermody, Interspersed with Pieces of Original Poetry (London: Miller, 1806), by James Grant Raymond. Ref Richardson, p. 249, Goodridge (1999), item 32, Johnson, item 326, EPFTD, Jackson (1985). [I]

? Derrick, Samuel (1724-1769), Irish poet, linendraper’s apprentice, referred to in Cuthbert Shaw’s The Race. Like Shaw, he tried his hand first as an actor, but then turned to hack writing, published in several genres, and wrote translations and criticism. Poetry includes ‘The Battle of Lora’. He eventually went on to become master of ceremonies at Bath. He was known to Johnson who pitied his condition of ‘poor poet’. Ref DNB, EPFTD, inf. Bridget Keegan. [I]

Deverall, Mrs Mary (b. 1737), self-taught daughter of a Gloucestershire clothier, pub. Miscellanies in Prose and Verse, Mostly Written in the Epistolary Style: Chiefly upon Moral Subjects, and Particularly Calculated for the Improvement of Younger Minds (London, Bristol, Bath, Oxford, Hereford & Tunbridge-Wells, 1781), Theodoras & Didymus, or, the Exemplification of Pure Love and Vital Religion. An Heroic Poem, in Three Cantos (London, Bath & Bristol, 1784, 1786), and Mary Queen of Scots; an Historical Tragedy, or, Dramatic Poem (London and Gloucester, 1792), Ref Jackson (1993), pp. 103-4. [F]

? Devlin, James Dacres (d. c. 1863), shoemaker, ‘radical, activist and minor literary figure...the best craftsman in the London trade’ (Hobsbawm and Scott, p. 107n), journalist, pub The Shoemaker (2 vols, 1838/39), a prose work, Two Odes Written upon the occasion of the Cinque Ports festival held at Dover (1839), An essay on the Boot and Shoe Trade of France as it affects the manufacture of the British manufacture in the same business. (1838), Helps to Hereford History, civil and legendary (1848), Critica Crispina, or the Boots and Shoes British and Foreign of the Great Exhibition (1852), Strangers’ Homes; or the Model Lodging Houses of London (1853), The Sydenham Sunday (1853), Rules and Regulations (1855), Contract Reform: its necessity shown in respect to the shoemaker, soldier, sailor (1856). Ref Cross, pp. 151-2; Bloomfield, Remains, 1824, I, 164-5, Winks, p. 313.

? Devlin, John Dacres, correspondent of Dickens, ‘The November Primrose’ (Peoples Journal, 6 (1848) p. 316) Ref: Maidment (1987), pp. 216-17.

? Dibb, Robert, poet from ‘the humbler walks of life’ also calls himself the ‘Wharfedale poet’, pub. The minstrel’s offering: or a wreath of poetry (London 1839), includes ‘The Factory Girl’. Ref Johnson, item 270.

Dick, Robert (1849-89), of Langlands brae, Kilmarnock, Ayrshire, child factory worker, printer, pub. Tales and poems (Kilmarnock, 1892). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 137. [S]

Dick, Thomas, of Paisley, weaver, pub. The Burn-lip: a tale of 1826—containing an account of Paisley at that time, with particular notices of the great fire at Ferguslie in 1789, the dearth in 1800, and the capsizing of the Canal passage boat in 1810 (1852), also published The Temperance Garland (1846), which included some of his own pieces included. Ref Brown. [S]

Dickinson, Grace (d. 1862), mother of six, entered the Halifax workhouse, died of TB, pub. Songs in the night: a collection of verses; by the late Grace Dickinson, composed in the Halifax Union Workhouse, edited by the chaplain (London and Halifax, 1863). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 132, Turner, p. 126. [F]

? Dickinson, William, mentioned by Ashraf, nothing further known [but ? this might possibly relate: Uncollected literary remains of William Dickinson: being a series in prose and verse, arranged from the author’s manuscripts by W. Hodgson (Carlisle, 1888), copies in Cambridge and BL]. Ref Ashraf, I, pp. 33-4.

Dinnie, Robert (b. 1808), of Allancreich, Birse, mason, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 13 (1890), pp. 286-96. [S]

? Ditchfield, Ralph (fl. 1882-3), of Blackburn, little biographical information but some evidence of labouring-class origin. Ref Hull, pp. 185-93.

? Dixon, Thomas, Sunderland corkcutter and friend of Joseph Skipsey (but ?a poet or not). Ref Vicinus (1974), p. 167.

Dodds, Jeanie (b. 1849), of Hillhouse, Lauder, daughter of a farm grieve, message girl in a draper’s, dressmaker, pub. poems in   Fifeshire Advertiser and in Edwards. Ref Crockett, pp. 263-4; Edwards, 13 (1890), pp. 53-6. [S] [F]

Dodsley, Robert (1703-1764), Ref Unwin, p.p. 71-2, Røstvig, II, p. 158; Cafarelli, 78, EPFTD, Christmas, pp. 69-71, 106-10, 147. [LC 1]

Doig, Alexander (b. 1848), of Dundee, tailor, pub poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 13 (1890), pp. 261-4. [S]

Donald, George, of Thornliebank, Renfrewshire, son of   factory worker (his father was a radical and also a poet published in Glasgow newspapers—unidentified further), calico printer, pattern designer, warehouseman, journalist, pub. in the newspapers and a collection of Poems: Reflective, Descriptive, and Miscellaneous (1865), well-reviewed. Ref Edwards, 2 (1881), p. 72-7; Murdoch, pp. 279-82. [S]

Donald, G.W. (1820-91), of Westfield, near Forfar, farmer’s son, lamed cattle-herder, weaver, teacher, keeper of Arbroath Abbey, pub. Poems, ballads and songs (Arbroath, 1867, 1879), “The muckle skeel” and other poems (Dundee, 1870). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 136. [S] [LC 6]

Donald, James (b. 1815), of Kirriemuir, handloom weaver, Chartist, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 14 (1891), pp. 129-32. [S]

Donaldson, Alexander (b. 1851), of Gifford, Haddingtonshire, tailor, soldier, Precenter in Yester Free Church, ‘comic vocalist and humourist’ (Reilly), pub. Rustic lays (Haddington, 1879). Ref Edwards, 6 (1883), pp. 374-9; Reilly (2000), p. 137. [S]

Donaldson, Thomas, weaver at Glasgow, Poems, chiefly in the Scottish dialect; both humorous and entertaining (Alnwick, 1809). Ref Johnson, item 276, NCSTC. [S]

Donnelly, Robert, weaver of Portadown, County Armargh, pub. Poems (Belfast, 1872), Poetical Works, 2nd edn (1882). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 137. [I]

Dorward, A. K. (b. 1866), of Letham, Forfarshire, taioor, soldier poet, pub poems in newspapers and in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 13 (1890), ppP. 347-50. [S]

? Doubleday, Thomas, of Newcastle upon Tyne, merchant, ‘angling poet’, Chartist, companion to Robert Roxby. Ref Allan, pp. 160-2.

Dougall, Neil (b. 1776), of Greenall, sailor poet, songwriter, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 14 (1891), pp. 110-16. [S]

Douglas, Alexander, weaver, of Strathmiclo, Fifeshire, pub. Poems, chiefly in the Scottish dialect (Cupar-Fife, 1806), includes biography. Ref Johnson, item 277. [S]

? Douglas, Francis (1710?-90?), miscellaneous writer, born Aberdeen, commenced business as a Baker. Ref EPFTD. [S]

Douglas, Sarah Parker (‘The Irish Girl’) (1824-81), of Newry, County Down, moved to Ayr in childhood, tended cows, uneducated, at 20 pub. in newspapers, d. in poverty in Glasgow, pub. Poems, 3rd edn (Ayr, 1861), Poems and Songs, 4th edn (Ayr, ?1880). Ref   Ref Edwards, 3 (1881), pp. 282-6; Reilly (2000), pp. 137-8. [I] [S] [F]

Dowey, Ralph (b. 1844), Northumberland miner, poet, newspaper publications. Ref Allan, pp. 568-9.

Downing, James, pub. A Narrative of the Life of James Downing (A Blind Man) late a Private in his Majesty’s 20th Regiment of Foot. Containing Historical, naval, Military, Moral, Religious and Entertaining Reflections. Composed by Himself in easy verse... (London, 3rd edn, 1815).

Drake, John (b. 1846), of Edinburgh, tailor’s boy, various menial and clerical jobs in Glasgow, pub. The Crofter, and other poems (Glasgow, 1888, 1890), Jock Sinclair, and other poems (Glasgow, 1890), The Lion of Scotland, a tale of 1298 (Glasgow, 1897). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 145, Edwards, 13 (1890), pp. 109-13. [S]

Draper, Francis (b. 1832), of London, carver and gilder, pub. The escape from Lochleven (1879). Ref Edwards 9 (1886), pp. 48-54. [S]

Drummond, Alexander (1843-c. 1870), of Larbert, Stirlingshire, ploughman, businessman, studied German in Konigsberg, land steward to the Earl of Zetland, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 6 (1883), pp. 48-53. [S]

Duck, Stephen (1705-1756). Ref Southey, pp. 88-113, 182-91, Craik, II, pp. 219-22; Blunden, pp. 106-17, Unwin, ch. 3, pp. 47-67, Tinker, pp. 92-5, Ashraf (1978), I, pp. 30-1, 53; Klaus (1985), pp. x, 2-21, Shiach, pp. 44, 47-52, Cafarelli, 78, Richardson, p. 257, Rizzo, 242-9, Phillips, 212-13; Harvey, Vincent, pp. 30-3, EPFTD, Christmas, pp. 17-18, 20-1, 26, 73-95, 122-5, Milne (2001); Keegan (2003). For ‘Arthur Duck’ of Ipswich (b. 1680), author of the parodic The Thresher’s Miscellany (1730) see Røstvig, II, pp. 157-8; Cranbrook, p. 187. [LC 1]

? Dudgeon, William (173-1813), Berwickshire farmer, older contemporary of Burns. Ref Crockett, pp. 99-101; Shanks, p. 115. [S]

Dugdale, Richard (1790-1875), of Blackburn, ‘The Bard of Ribblesdale’‚ parish apprentice, ran away at fourteen, enlisted and served, poems included in Hull (photograph of the poet in Hull, frontispiece). Ref Hull, pp. 27-38, James, pp. 171, 173.

Dunbar, William (?1852-74), of Wardley Colliery, songwriter, pub. Local and other songs, recitations, and conundrums: A local tale, &c, composed by the late William Dunbar (Newcastle upon Tyne, 1874). Ref Allan, p. 511, Reilly (2000), p. 143.

Duncan, Alexander (1823-1864), of Dalmeny, Linlithgowshire, tailor, pub. Leisure Hours (1858). Ref Edwards, 6 (1883), pp. 188-92. [S]

Duncan, John F. (b. 1847), of Newtyle, painter and decorator, pub. ‘Light and Shadows’, a dramatic sketch in verse of the life of Burns, for the Dundee Burns Club and performed at the Theatre Royal, Dundee. Ref Edwards, 3 (1881), pp. 49-51. [S]

Dunn, Sarah Jane, of Wormley, Hertfordshire, educated at charity school, suffered from heart and spinal defects, pub. Poems (London, 1870). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 143. [F]

? Duthie, Robert (1826-65), of Stonehaven, Kincardineshire, baker’s son, antiquarian, Presbyterian, town clerk, pub. Poems and songs; and, Lecture on poetry, with a brief memoir of the author (Stonehaven, 1866). Ref Reilly (2000), pp. 143-4, Bodleian. [S]

Duxbury, James (b. 1854), of Blackburn, factory worker, printer. Ref Hull, pp. 347-55.

? Dyer, F, C19th poet, of Manchester. Ref James, p. 171. [Warning: I can find no other trace of this one—JG]

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? Edington, James Stead, a secretary to the North Shields Tradesmen and Mechanics’ Institution, Northumberland, pub. Billy Purvis’s benefit: The keelman’s   grand remonstrance, and other pieces (North Shields, South Shields, Newcastle, Sunderland, Hartlepool, West Hartlepool and Blyth, 1863). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 146.

Edwards, John (b. c. 1772), son of shoemaker of Fulneck near Leeds, began life as a weaver, known by the Wordsworths who called him ‘the ingenious poet’, pub. The tour of the Dove, a poem ...with occasional pieces (London, 1821, 1825). Ref Johnson, items 305-6.

Edwards, Thomas (b. 1857), of Milnab, Creiff, miller’s son, , house painter, pub. in People’s Friend, People’s Journal and newspapers, and poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards 9 (1886), pp. 63-8. [S]

? Edwards, William, of Delgaty, Turreff, gardener, A collection of poems, on various subjects, in the English and Scottish dialects (Aberdeen, 1810). Ref Johnson, item 307. [S]

? Elder, William (b. 1829), apprentice gardener, later superintendent of the Fountain Gardens, Paisley, pub. A Shakespearean Bouquet (1827), Milton’s Bouquet (1874), Burns’s Bouquet (1875), Tannahill Bouquet (1877), all works examining use of flowers in the works of these poets, and doing so in his own poems, and ‘To the defenders of Things as They Are’ in An Address Delivered by William Elder on the Evening of Monday 27th March 1870, at the Soiree of the Eclectic Mutual Improvement Class, Meeting in the Trades Hall, Paisley, S. Mitchell in the Chair (Paisley, nd [1870]). Ref Brown, Leonard, pp. 278-80. [S]

Elliott, Ebenezer (1781-1849), Corn Law poet, ironmaster. Ref Thomas Carlyle, ‘Corn-Law Rhymes’, Edinburgh Review, CX (April 1832), 338-61, reprinted in the various editions of Carlyle’s essays; Eaglestone, A. A., Ebenezer Elliott...1781-1859 (Sheffield, 1959), Howitt, pp. 643-68, Cross, 148-50, James, pp. 171, 173-4, 176-9; Vicinus (1974), pp. 96-7, 165-6, 168-70, Ashraf (1975), 149-52, Sambrook, 1360, Maidment (1983), 80-3, Maidment (1987), pp. 48-55, 61-2, 102-11, 223-4, Johnson, items 127, 313, 612, Scheckner, pp. 141-52, 332-3, Goodridge (1999), item 40, EPFTD, Miles, II, pp. 231-60, Ricks, pp. 302-3. [LC 4]

? Elliott, Margaret, of Teviothead, Roxburghshire, tenant farmer, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 6 (1883), pp. 579-81. [S] [F]

Elliott, N[?athaniel], shoemaker of Oxford, author of The Vestry (Oxford, 1767), An Ode to Charity (Oxford, 1770, Dobell 479); Food for Poets, a Poem (London, 1775); A Prophecy of Merlin, an heroic poem concerning the wondrous success of a project now on foot to make the River from the Severn to Stroud in Gloucestershire navigable, translated from the original Latin annexed, with notes explanatory (1776, BL 11633.g.21; Dobell 480); The Atheist, a Poem (Birmingham, 1770, Dobell 2889), Food for Poets (n. d.). [There may have been two N. Elliotts, and the ESTC entry suggests The Atheist is by the other one.] [LC 2]

Elliott, Robert, of Choppington, miner, poet, wrote ‘A Pitman gawn te Paliament’, pub. Poems & Recitations (Bedlington, 1877). Ref Allan, p. 571, Reilly (2000), p. 150. [LC 6]

? Emerson, G.R., poet, wrote ‘The Dream of the Artisan’ (Peoples Journal, 10 (1850) p. 74.. Ref Maidment (1987), pp. 214, 224-6.

Emmott, James, pub. A working man’s verses (London, 1896). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 154.

Emsley, John, Yorkshire village blacksmith, pub. Rural musings (Skipton, 1883). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 154.

? Enoch, Ebenezer, pub. Songs of Universal Brotherhood (1849) (James).

? Enoch, Frederick, songwriter, of Leamington, Warwickshire, member of the ‘Nottingham group’, later connected with the Pall Mall Gazette, pub. Songs of land and sea (London, 1877). Ref James, p. 171, Reilly (2000), p. 152.

? Evans, Simon, early C20, postman-poet of Cleobury Mortimer. Ref Poet’s England 14: Shropshire, ed. by Neil Grifiths and John Waddington-Feather (St Albans: Brenthem Press, 1994), p. 27.

Ewing, William (b. 1840), of Gardenside, Bridgeton, Glasgow, engineer and boilermaker, blinded in a workplace accident, pub. Poems and songs (Glasgow, 1892). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 157. [S]

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Fair, R.C., fl. 1814-15, political activist and shoemaker poet. Ref Janowitz, pp. 69, 71, 106-7.

? Fairburn, Margaret Waters (‘M.W.F.’) (b. 1825), neé Waters, of Selkirk, assistant keeper of Melrose Abbey, m. a factory worker, pub. ‘Songs in the night’ (London and Edinburgh, 1885). Ref Edwards, 10 (1887), pp. 249-55; Reilly (1994), p. 159. [S] [F]

Fairley, Cessford Ramsay Sawyers (b. 1886), of Leith, Edinburgh postman known as ‘The Postman bard’, pub. Poems and songs (Leith, 1890). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 159. [S]

Falconer, William (1732-1769). Ref Wilson, I, pp. 235-46, Unwin, pp. 81-4, Powell, item 201, EPFTD; Keegan (2003). [LC 2]

? Falkner, George, member of the ‘Sun Inn’ group of writers, editor of Bradshaw’s Journal (1841-3) and publisher. Ref Vicinus (1974), p. 160.

Farmer, Edward (‘Ned’), chief of the Midland Railway Department at Derby, pub. poems on common topics, in various revisions of Ned Farmer’s Scrap Book (1846, 1853, 1863 &c). Ref Bob Heyes, listings.

? Farningham, Marianne (‘Mary Anne Hearn’) (1834-1909)‚ from a ‘Baptist, working-class family’, pub. eight volumes of poetry from 1860 to 1909, including Poems (1866). Ref ABC, pp. 571-2. [F]

Farquhar, Barbara H, daughter of a labourer, pub. Pearl of Days (1849) [an essay on the sacredness of the Sabbath]; Female Education; Its importance, design and nature (1851); Real Religion; or, the practical application of Holy Scripture to Daily Life (1850); Poems (London, 1863, 1864). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 160. [F]

Farquharson, Alexander (b. 1836), of Carlops, tenant farmer, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 13 (1890), pp. 278-82. [S]

Fawcett, Stephen (1805-76), ‘The Ten Hours Movement Poet’, b. Burley, Wharfedale, farmer‘s son, moved to Bradford, pub. Wharfedale Lays; or, lyrical poems (London, and Braford, 1837). Ref Vicinus (1974), pp. 141, 161, 172, Johnson, item, 326, Reilly (2000), p. 160.

? Feist, Charles, of East Anglia (‘Mine’s but an humble Muse, content to sing / Of rustic deeds, and rural scenes t’explore’), pub. The Wreath of Solitude (1818). Ref Crossan, 37, Powell, item 202.

Fenby, Thomas, native of Beverley, pub. Wild Roses (Liverpool, 1824), ‘productions of the leisure hours of a mechanic’. Ref Johnson, item 328.

? Fennel, Alfred, author of The Red Flag. Ref Kovalev, p. 130, Ashraf (1975), pp. 214-15, Scheckner, pp. 153, 333.

Ferguson, Dugald (b. 1839), of Brenfield, Ardrishaig, Argyleshire,  farmer’s son, emigrated to Australia then New Zealand, settled in Otago, pub. Castle-Gay and Other Poems (Dunedin), and another volume. Ref Edwards, 13 (1890), pp. 296-302. [S]

Ferguson, Malcolm (b. 1838), of Paisley, carpet weaver, mechanic, emigrated to New Zealand, pub. ‘The Emigrant’s Warning’, in Brown, II, pp. 321-4. Ref Leonard, pp. 323-7. [S]

Ferguson, Nicol (b 1830), of Cumbernauld, Dumbartonshire, descendant of the poet Robert Ferguson, coalminer, emigrated to America, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 12 (1889), pp. 355-9. [S]

Fergusson, William (1806-62), of Edinburgh, plumber, supporter of Labour league, director of the Philosophical Institution, pub. Songs and poems, with a memoir of the author (Edinburgh, 1864), Ref Reilly (2000), p. 162. [S]

Field, George (b. 1804), of Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire, gardener’s and seamstress’s son, self-educated, farm worker stricken by rheumatism, shopworker, postrman, pub. Poems and essays on a variety of interesting subject ... in reference to the natural and scientifically cultivated systems developed in the world (Stratford-upon-Avon, Birmingham and London, 1870). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 164.

? Findlay, John Haddow (1849-95), of Kilmarnock, apprentice ironmonger, commercial traveller, pub. Prose and poetry (Kilmarnock, 1899). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 165. [S]

Finlay, William (1792-1847), of Paisley, weaver, pub. Poems, Humorous and Sentimental (1846). Ref Wilson, II, pp. 131-3, Brown. [S]

Finlayson, William (1787-1872), of Pollokshaws, weaver then exciseman, ‘Weaver’s Lament on the Failure of the Celebrated Strike of weaving, for a Minimum of Wages, in 1812’ in his Simple Scottish Rhymes (Paisley, 1815). Ref Murdoch, pp. 27-9, Leonard, pp. 57-62. [S]

? Fisher, James (b. 1818), of Glasgow, foreman in a Calico printer’s, later a schoolmaster, author of ‘The Queer Folk in the Shaws’, in A.G. Murdoch (ed), Recent and Living Scottish Poets (Glasgow, undated). Ref Leonard, pp. 178-9. [S]

Fisher, Robert M’Kenzie (b. 1840), of Prestwick, Ayrshire, weaver, farm servant, ship carpenter, bookseller and stationer, pub. Poems, songs, and sketches, 3rd edn (Ayr, 1898), Poetical Sparks (1880, two editions by 1890). Ref   Edwards, 6 (1883), pp. 324-8; Brown; Reilly (1994), p. 166. [S]

Fitton, Sam (1868-1923), of Congleton, Cheshire, then Rochdale, worked in a mill (doffer then piecer), then as a cartoonist/entertainer, doing recitations of his own verse. Ref Hollingworth, p. 153.

Fleming, Charles (1804 –57), of Paisley, second generation weaver, pub. Poems, Songs and Essays (1878). Ref Brown, Maidment (1983), 84, Maidment (1987), pp. 331-4, Reilly (2000), p. 166. [S]

Fleming, William (b. 1860), of Paisley, father a dyer, apprenticed to boot and shoemaking trade, pub. poems in papers. Ref Brown. [S]

Floyd, William, cordwainer of Notting Hill, London, pub. Lays from the lapstone (Kensington, 1862). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 167.

Foot, Edward Edwin (b. 1828), of Ashburton, Devon, son of a shoemaker and hatter, house painter and glazier, inventor, worked for HM Customs in London, pub. The original poems of Edward Edwin Foot (London, 1867).   Ref Reilly (2000), pp. 167-8.

Ford, Robert (b. 1846), of Cargill, Perthshire, cloth-measurer, clerk, pub. in newspapers, and Hamespun Lays and Lyrics (1878), Humorous Scoth Readings (1881). Ref Murdoch, pp. 409-13. [S]

Forrester, Fanny, female operative in a Pendleton Dye-Works, b. 1852, regular contributor to Ben Brierley’s Journal throughout the 1870s. Ref Maidment (1987), 151, 156-8; Zlotnick, Susan, ‘Lowly Bards and Incomplete Lyres: Fanny Forrester and the Construction of a Working-Class Woman’s Poetic Identity’, Victorian Poetry, 36, no. 1 (1998), 17-35 and Women, Writing and the Industial Revolution (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998), pp. 168-222. [Note that Maidment treats her name as a pseudonym, Zlotnick as a real name.] [F] [LC 6].

Forsyth, William (‘William o’ ye West’) (1818-89), or Earlston, Berwickshire, of a Covenanting family, pupil-teacher, wool-spinner, hotel keeper, pub. A lay of Lochleven (Glasgow, 1887). Ref Edwards, 13 (1890), pp. 205-9; Crocket, pp. 183-6 (who gives his birth as 1823); Reilly (1994), p. 171. [S]

Foster, John (fl. 1793-7), shoemaker poet, Serious Poems (1793), Poems, Chiefly on Religious Subjects (1797). Ref Winks, p. 313. [LC 3]

Foster, William Air (1801-1862), of Coldstream, shoemaker, moved to Glasgow in 1842, Border sportsman, friend of Hogg, pub. in Whistle-Binkie and the Book of Scottish Song. Ref Crockett, pp. 149-54. [S]

Foulds, Andrew (1815-41), of Paisley, cooper; poems appeared in Renfrewshire Annual of 1841, longest piece ‘The Begunk: a Halloween Tale’. Ref Brown. [S]

Franklin, Robert, of Ferriby Sluice, Lincolnshire, weaver, miller, and descendant of millers, pub. The miller’s muse; rural poems (Hull, 1824). Ref Johnson, item 339.

Fraser, John (b. 1812), of Paisley, worked in a foundry, worked in tobacco shop, shoemaker, pub. a collection in 1830, and Poetical Chimes, or Leisure Lays (1852), wrote a play on Scottish nationalism, King James V., or the Gipsey’s Revenge. Ref Brown. [S]

? Fraser, Lydia Falconer, of Inverness, merchant’s daughter, wife of Hugh Miller, pub. poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 3 (1881), pp. 309-12. [S] [F]

Freeland, William (b. 1828), of Kirkintilloch, Dunbartonshire, calico-printer, journalist, pub. A birth song, and other poems (Glasgow, 1882). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 173. [S]

Freeth, John (1731?-1808), alehouse keeper of Birmingham, topical songwriter and singer, poems published in The Warwickshire Medley (Birmingham, 1780); Modern Songs on Various Subjects (Birmingham, 1782); New London Magazine, III (1786), Supplement, The Political Songster, or, a touch of the times, on various subjects, and adapted to commmon tunes (6th edn. with additions, Birmingham, 1790). Ref Rizzo, 243; Lonsdale (1984), pp. 656-60, 852n; Warwicks. Poets, pp. 156-60. Hobday, Johnson, item 346, ESTC, BL 11622.b.1, BL 11622.b.44, BL [LC 3]

Frizzle, John, of Cory’s Mill, nr. Enniskilling, ‘Verses by a Miller in Ireland, to Stephen Duck’ (1733), Gents. Mag. III (1733) p. 95. Ref Klaus (1985), pp. 4-5. [LC 1] [I]

Fullarton, John (b. 1808), of Ballynure, County Antrim, reedmaker, wrote for The Ulster Magazine, pub. O’More: a tale of war, and other poems (Belfast and Londo, 1867). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 174. [I]

Fullerton, John (b. 1836), of Woodside, Aberdeen, millworker, ‘twister’, pub. The Ghaist o Dennilair (1870. Ref Murdoch, pp. 295-8. [S]

Furness, Richard (1791-1857), currier and preacher, of Eyam, Derbyshire, later of Sheffield, one of the ‘better-known’ working-class poets (James), The rag-bag: a satire. In three cantos (London and Shaffield, 1832), Medicus-Magicus, a poem, in three cantos, with a glossary (Sheffield and London, 1836)—a poem addressed to and descriptive of the miners of the Peak region, Poetical Works, with a Life by J. Calvert Holland (1858). Ref James, p. 171-2; Maidment (1983), 84, Maidment (1987), pp. 162-3, 1712, Johnson, items 352-3, Jarndyce, item 1377, DNB. [LC 5]

Fyfe, Archibald (1772-1806), of Paisley, mechanic, pub. posthumous Poems and Criticisms, by the late Archibald Fyfe, Paisley. Ref Brown. [S]

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Gabbitass, Peter (b. 1822), of Worksop, Nottinghamshire, carpenter, moved to Bristol and known as ‘The Clifton Poet’, pub. Musings poetical from the diary of Miss Chameleon Circumstances (Bristol, 1876), Cook’s folly: a legendary ballad of St. Vincent’s Rocks, Clifton, and written there, 3rd edn (Bristol, 1882); Excelsior! a day dream in autumn on St. Vincent’s Rocks, with other poems suitable for readings and recitations (Clifton, ?1880). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 178, Reilly (2000), pp. 176.

Gairns, Robert (b. 1804), of New London, St Martin’s, Perthshire, handloom weaver, stone dyker and wood cutter, abstainer and reciter, pub. Rustic Rhymes. Ref Edwards, 9 (1886), pp. 385-8. [S]

Galbraith, James (b. 1838), of Glasgow, orphaned by thirteen, bookbinder, shoemaker, self-taught lecturer and journalist, businessman and employer, pub. City poems and songs, with a prefatory note by Fergus Ferguson (Glasgow, 1868). Ref Reilly (2000), pp. 176-7, Edwards, 2 (1881), pp. 147-54. [S]

? Gallacher, Daniel (b. c. 1848), of Paisley, attended charity school, apprenticed printer, compositor, pub. a vol. in 1879.   Ref Edwards, 3 (1881), pp. 43-4. [S]

? Gall, Richard (1776-1801) of Linkhouse near Dumbar, notary’s son, apprentice housebuilder, printer and poet, friend of Burns and Hector MacNeill, pub. Poems and Songs by the Late Richard Gall (Edinburgh, 1819) (Clare owned a copy). Ref Wilson, I, pp. 551-4. Douglas, p. 300, Powell, item 217, EPFTD. [S]

Garden, Alexander (b. 1845)of Auchanacie, Banffshire, brother of William (qv), crofter’s son, herdsman, railway labourer, policeman, pub. in periodicals. Ref Edwards, 2 (1881), pp. 117-21. [S]

Garden, William (b. 1848), of Auchanacie, Banffshire, brother of Alexander (qv), crofter’s son, herdsman, baker, pub. Meg’s wedding, and other poems (Keith, 1868), Sonnets and poems (London, 1890). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 180, Reilly (2000), p. 177, Edwards, 2 (1881), 24-7. [S]

Gardiner, Peter, of Edinburgh (1847-c. 1883), blacksmith, served in the US marine Corps from 1865, poems in Murdoch. Ref Edwards, 10 (1887), pp. 315-21; Murdoch, pp. 378-83 (with image). [S]

Gardiner, William (b. 1804), of Applegarth, Dumfriesshire, cabinet maker, organ and piano maker, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 9 (1886), pp. 248-55. [S]

? Gaspey, William (1812-86) of Blackburn, second-generation journalist, pub. Poor Law Melodies (1841), A dish of trifle (London and Whitehaven, 1869), Landmarks of paradise (London, 1878), Remanets [sic] (London, Keswick and Cockermouth, 1865), contributed to The Festive Wreath (1842). Ref Hull, pp. 43-8, James, pp. 171, 177, Reilly (2000), p. 180.

Geddes, James Young (b. 1850), of Dundee, tailor and clothier, librettist, pub. The new Jerusalem, and other verses (Dundee, 1879), The spectre clock of Alyth, and other selections (Alyth, Perthshire, 1886), In the Valhalla, and other poems (Dundee, 1891). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 182, Reilly (2000), p. 180. [S]

Gemmell, Robert (1821-87), of Irvine, Ayrshire, shipbuilder, soldier, railwayman, pub. Sketches from life, with occasional thoughts and poems (Glasgow and Edinburgh, 1863), Montague a drama, and other poems (London, Glasgow and Edinburgh, 1868), The village beauty, and other poems (Glasgow, Edinburgh and London, 1886). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 182; Reilly (2000), pp. 180-1; Edwards, 2 (1881), 57-62, and 12 (1889), pp. xix-xx; Murdoch, pp. 199-201. [S]

? Gemmill, Jaime, tailor, Elegy on Jaime Gemmill, tailor (Paisley, 1820). [S]

Gibb, George (1826-84), of Aberdeen, factory operative, railway official, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 3 (1881), pp. 376-9 and 9 (1886), p. xxiii. [S]

Gibb, George A. G. (b. 1860), of Rothiemay, Aberdeenshire, son of George Gibb (above), railwayman, police officer, poems in newspapers and in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 9 (1886), pp. 349-53. [S]

Gibson, John (1819-82), of Greenlaw, tailor, Religious tract Society book-hawker, pub. Poems, grave and gay (1875). Ref Crockett, pp. 181-2. [S]

Gifford, William (1756-1826), shoemaker poet, pub. The Baviad (1791), The Maeviad (1795), Epistle to Peter Pindar (1800), The satires of D. J. Juvenalis, translated into English verse (1802). Ref Hobsbawm & Scott, p. 96, EPFTD.

? Gilchrist, Robert (1797-1844), of Gateshead, sailmaker’s son, local poet and songwriter, celebrated in his day, pub. A Collection of Original Songs, Local and Sentimental (1824). Ref Allan, pp. 169-96, Welford, II, pp. 295-7.

? Gilding, Elizabeth, of Woolwich, Kent, an orphan without formal schooling, pub. The Breathings of Genius, Being a Collection of Poems; to Which are Added, Essays, Moral and Philosophical (London, 1776). Ref Jackson (1993), p. 133. [F]

? Giles, Sydney, C19 poet, member of the ‘Nottingham group’. Ref James, p. 171. [Warning: I can find no other trace of this one--JG]

Gilfillan, Robert (1798-1850), of Dunfermline, son of a weaver, apprenticed to a cooper, also worked as grocer’s shopman and a clerk; Original Songs (Edinburgh, ?1831); Songs (2nd ed, Edinburgh, 1835); Poems and Songs (3rd ed, 1839); Emanuel’s land [a poem] (Leith, 1846); Poems and songs, with a memoir (4th ed., Edinburgh, 1851). Ref Wilson, II, pp. 177-81, Johnson, items 373-4, DNB, EPFTD. [S] [LC 5]

Gilkinson, John (1851-95), of Gorbals, Glasgow, son of a working man, writer and shopkeeper, pub. The minister’s fiddle: a book of verse, humorous and otherwise (Glasgow, 1888). Ref Edwards, 13 (1890), pp. 165-73; Reilly (1994), p. 185. [S]

Gill, Edmund (fl. 1797-1800), shoemaker poet, published single poems in European Magazine.

? Gill, Edwin, Sheffield Chartist. Ref Kovalev, pp. 104-5, Scheckner, pp. 154-5, 333.

Gilmour, George, of Edington, son of a mason, emigrated to America c. 1833, author of ‘The Sabbath’, pub. in Crockett. Ref Crockett, pp. 209-10. [S]

Glass, Andrew (b. 1820), of Girvan, Ayrshire, handloom weaver, journalist, pub. Poems and Songs (Ayr, 1869). Ref  Edwards, 6 (1883), pp. 338-42; Reilly (2000), p. 184. [S]

Glover, Jean (1758-1801), Scottish poetess, daughter of weaver (DNB); appears to have published only in periodicals/newspapers; Robert Burns took ‘Ower the Muir’ from her singing. Ref Wilson , II, p, 518, Douglas, pp. 80-1, 294-5, Fullard, p. 555. [LC 3] [S] [F]

? Gomershal, Mrs. A, destitute widow of seventy-four, pub. Creation. A Poem (Newport, IoW, 1824). Ref Johnson, item 382. [F]

Gordon, Alexander (b. 1809), of Aberdeen, shoemaker, clerk, trade unionist, soldier, pub. satirical and political poems in newspapers and in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 9 (1886), pp. 96-103. [S]

Gordon, Frank H (b. 1854), of Durris, Kircardineshire, shepherd’s son, forester, piper, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 3 (1881), pp. 365-6, [S]

? Gordon, Georgina Jane, of Melbourne, Australia, daughter of an emigrant farming family who returned to Scotland, settled in Alehouseburn, Bannf, three poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 2 (1881), pp. 256-9. [S] [F]

Gordon, William (b. 1857), of Bourtie, Aberdeenshire, herd laddie, railway porter, signalman, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 14 (1891), pp. 241-6. [S]

? Gould, Robert (d. ?1709), servant of the Earl of Dorset, obtained some education, Love given over, or a Satyr against Woman (1680), Poems chiefly consisting of Satyrs and Satyrical Epistles (1689), The Rival Sisters (1696), a tragedy acted at Drury Lane. Ref Foxon, DNB, EPFTD.

? Gowenlock, R. Scott, of Oldham, pub. Idyls of the people (London and Manchester, 1867). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 189.

? Graham, Dougal (1721-79), chapbook writer, bellman and chapman of Glasgow poet, took part in the ’45, pub. a verse Account of the Rebellion, chapbooks ‘valuable as folklore’ (DNB); Collected Writings, ed. by G. MacGregor (2 vols, Glasgow, 1883). Ref Wilson, II, p. 519, EPFTD. [S]

Graham, William (b. 1816), of County Down went to Paisley aged six, drawboy then weaver, then enlisted in British Legion, worked in coal mining then returned to Paisley, pub. The Wild Rose, Being Songs, Comic and Sentimental (Paisley, 1851). Ref Brown, Leonard, pp. 193-4. [I] [S]

? Grant, Joseph (b. 1805), of Afrusk, Kincairdshire farmer’s son, later journalist on the Dundee Guardian, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 10 (1887), pp. 344-57; Shanks, p. 141. [S]

Grant, Lewis (b. 1872), of Loch Park, workman’s son and self-taught teenage prodigy, poems in the People’s Journal and in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 12 (1889), pp. 196-206. [S]

Grant, Robert (b. 1818), of Peterhead, tailor, newspaper editor, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 3 (1881), pp. 391-2. [S]

? Gray, Christian (b. 1772), of a farming family ruined by the drought years of 1816-26, daughter of George Gray and Janet MacDonald, pub. Tales, Letters, and Other Pieces, in Verse (Edinburgh, 1808), A New Selection of Miscellaneous Pieces, in Verse (Perth, 1821). Ref Jackson (1993), p. 138. [S] [F]

Gray, David (1838-61), of Duntiblae, Dunbartonshire and Glasgow, son of a handloom weaver, pupil-teacher, pub. The Luggie, and other poems (1862) with a memoir by James Hedderwick, and a prefatory notice by Richard Monckton Milnes (Cambridge, 1862), Poems by David Gray (1865), other editions of 1874 and 1886. Ref Hood, pp. 367-78; Wilson, II, pp. 485-8, Douglas, pp. 269-73, 314-15, EPFTD. Ref Reilly (2000), pp. 191-2. [S] [LC 5]

Gray, John Y., ‘G.’ (b. 1846), of Letham, handloom weaver, poems in Edwards. Dunnichenn. Ref Edwards, 10 (1887), pp. 257-66. [S]

Greig, James (b. 1861), of Arbroath, flaxdresser, pub. poems in Dundee Weekly News and Edwards. Ref Edwards 9 (1886), pp. 59-63. [S]

? Green, George Smith (d. 1762), Oxford watchmaker poet, The Parson’s Parlour a Poem by a Tradesman of Oxford (Oxford, 1756). Ref DNB, Foxon.

Greensted, Frances, of Maidstone, Kent, domestic servant who was supporting an ageing mother, and had worked for the same family for twenty years at the time that she pub. Fugitive Pieces (Maidstone, London, Bath, Marlborough, Faversham, Chatham & Canterbury, 1796). Ref Jackson (1993), p. 139, Johnson, item 390 (reproduces title page, with 4-line tag from Pope [Epistle to Arbuthnot] beginning ‘I left no calling for the idle trade’), Burmester, item 404 and p. 118 (image). [F]

Gregory, John   (1831-1922), ‘The Poet-Shoemaker of Bristol’, of Bideford, Devon, minimum education, shoemaker in Bristol, Tenby, Aberavon, Swansea and Cardiff, friend of Capern, socialist and stalwart of the labour movement, much honoured in his adopted city of Bristol, whose university awardad him an MA, pub. Idylls of labour (London and Bristol, 1871), Song Streams (1877), Murmurs and Melodies (1884), My Garden and Other Poems (1907), A Dream of Love in Eden (1911), Star Dreams (1919). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 194; George Hare Leonard, Some Memories of John Gregory (1922); [John Gregory], ‘Volume of poems, newspaper   cuttings, etc, by or about John Gregory, c. 1886-1931’, Bristol Public Library Local Studies Collection, item 21416.

Greig, David Lundie (b. 1837), of Edinburgh, blacksmith, sunday school teacher, pub. Pastimes musings ... with supplementary contributions by John Paul and David Tasker (Arbroath, 1892). Ref Edwards, 12 (1889), pp. 110-16; Reilly (1994), p. 197. [S]

Greig, James (1861-1941), of Arbroath, Angus, flax-dresser, journalist and writer, pub. Poems and songs from the hackle-shop (Arbroath, 1887). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 198. [S]

? Grierson, Constantia (1706-1733), Irish printer’s wife, daughter of ‘poor filliterate country people’, self-taught classicist, ‘The Goddess Envy’ (1730), ‘On the Art of Printing’ (1764). Ref Rowton, pp. 161-2, Todd, Dictionary of...Women Writers 1660-1800, Lonsdale, (1989), pp. 91-3, Fullard, p. 556, DNB, EPFTD, Carpenter, p. 203. [I] [F]

Grieve, John (b. 1781), of Edinburgh, hat manufacturer, friend of James Hogg, wrote poems including ‘Polwarth on the Green’ pub in Crockett. Ref Crockett, p. 325. [S]

? Griffith, George Chetwynd (‘Lara’) (d. 1906), self-educated clergyman’s son, wandered the world as a sailor, butcher, schoolmaster and journalist, among other jobs, settled in Littlehampton, pub. Poems: general, secular, and satirical (London and Edinburgh, 1883). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 198.

Guthrie, George (b. 1842), of Newcastle upon Tyne, blacksmith at Wallsend and Sunderland, songwriter. Ref Allan, p. 518.

Gwyer, Joseph (‘The Penge Poet’) (b. 1835), of Redlynch, Downton, Wilt., farmer’s son, millworker in Bermondsey, potato-salesman and author of ‘doggerel platitudes’, moved to Penge, involved in the Baptist Church and the temperance movement, pub. Sketches of the life of Joseph Gwyer; with his poems, ramble round the neighbourhood, glimpses of departed days (2nd edn Penge, 1876, 4th edn, Penge and London, 1877), Poems and prose (with biographical materials by C.H. Spurgeon) (London, 1895). Ref Maidment (1987), p. 209, Reilly (1994), p. 202, Reilly (2000), pp. 197-8.

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? Haigh, Levi, village postman at Sowerby Bridge, pub. Poems and Pictures 1922-9 (Halifax, 1929), five booklets bound together; also contributed to an autograph commonplace book up to 1927. Ref inf. Bob Heyes.

Hall, Spencer T. (1812-85), ‘The Sherwood Forester’, stocking weaver, printer, bookseller and lecturer, leader and biographer of the Nottingham group, publisher, pub.The Forester’s Offering (1841), The Upland Hamlet (1847), Lays from the lakes (Rochdale and Windermere, 1878), Powell, item 232. James, p. 171, DNB, Ref Reilly (2000), p. 202.

Hamilton, Janet Thomson (1795-1873), of Langloan, poet, daughter of a shoemaker, Poems and Songs (Edinburgh, 1863), Poems and essays of a Miscellaneous Character (Edinburgh, 1863), Poems of purpose and sketches in prose of Scottish Peasant Life and Character in Auld Langsyne (Edinburgh, 1865), Sketches (Edinburgh, 1865), Poems and Ballads (Edinburgh, 1868), Poems, essays and sketches (Edinburgh, 1870), Poems, Essays, and Sketches: Comprising the Principal Pieces from her Complete Works (Edinburgh, 1880). Hamilton published poems and essays in periodicals, including The Adviser and The Working Man’s Friend, throughout the 1850s. Ref Wilson, II, pp. 149-51, Shanks, p. 159, Murdoch, pp. 334-7, Maidment (1987), pp. 187, 203-4, 267-8, Boos (1995), ABC, pp. 162-6, Breen pp. xvii, 89-92, DNB, EPFTD, Reilly (2000), p. 204, Boos (2001). [S] [F] [LC 5]

? Hamilton, John (1761-1814), Scottish song-writer. Ref DNB. [S]

Hamilton, John (b. 1827), of Paisley, cloth calenderer, later photographer in Greenock and Port Glasgow, pub. The Lay of the Bogle Stone, An Erratic Poem, Part First (London, 1869). Ref Leonard, pp. 271-4. [S]

Hamlyn, George (‘The Dartmoor Bloomfield’) (1819-?96), of Tamerton, Devon, wheelwright, coachmaker, travelled country and lived in Australia, pub. Rustic Poems (Devonport, Plymouth and London, 1869). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 204.

Hampson, Walter, Engine Driver, pub. Songs of the Line. And other Poems (London: King’s Cross Publishing Co, 1905). Ref inf John Lucas. [OP]

Hanby, George (1817-1904) (‘Peter Pledge’), of Barnsley, colliery surfaceman and verse-writer for charitable causes and income. Ref Vicinus (1969), 26.

Hands, Mrs Elizabeth, servant, of Coventry, married to a blacksmith, pub. (as ‘Daphne’) in The Coventry Mercury, and won 1,200 subscribers for her The Death of Amnon. A Poem. With Appendix containing pastorals and other poetical pieces (Coventry, 1789, BL 1466.h.18); Caroline Franklin, Introduction to The Death of Amnon. A Poem by Elizabeth Hands [and] The Rural Lyre, A Volume of Poems by Ann Yearsley (London: Routledge, 1996). Ref ESTC, Lonsdale (1989), pp. 422-9, Rizzo, 243, Milne (1999), pp. 60-99, Johnson, item 406, Jackson (1993), p. 144; Cynthia Dereli, ‘In Search of a Poet: the life and work of Elizabeth Hands’, Women’s Writing, 8, no. 1 (2001), 169-82, Christmas, pp. 228-34. [F] [LC 3]

Hannah, John, (1802-54), of Creetown, moved down from Scotland to Diss in 1823, itinerant packman, pub. Posthumous Rhymes (Beccles, 1854). Ref Cranbrook, pp. 118, 201. [S]

Hardacre, Ben, (c. 1820-80), factory operative of Bradford, Miscellanies in Prose and Verse (London and Bradford, 1874). Ref. Vicinus (1974), pp. 146-7, 180n. [LC 6]

Hardie, Andrew (b. 1825-88), of Carlton, Glasgow, moved to Paisley aged one, father a shoemaker who entered army and then retired with good pension, got a good education but couldn’t get a situation and so apprenticed to shoemaker, started writing poetry in 1843, pub. A Selection of Songs and Sentiments (1849); Freedom: A Poem (1854, a 16-page poem), also contributed to newspapers, went blind. Ref Brown. [S]

? Hardy, William, groom, Poems on Several Subjects by ... a Poor Groom at Oxford (no imprint, 1737). Ref Dobell 2946 .

Hargrave, Hugh Dunbar (1854-83), of Parkhead, Glasgow, son of a yarn dyer, left school at ten to work in dye works, later a bricklayer, pub. Poems, songs and essays (Glasgow, 1886). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 211, Edwards, 2 (1881), pp. 139-40; Edwards, 9 (1886), p. xx. [S]

Harman, Matthew (b. 1822), of Scarborough, went to sea with Scarborough fishing fleet in youth, pub. Poetic buds (2nd edn 1865, rev ed. 1874), Wayside blossoms (1867, rev. edn. 1883), A wreath of rhyme (1871), Bodleian. Ref Reilly (2000), pp. 206-7.

? Harney, George Julian, of Kent, Chartist, founder of The Red Republican. Ref Kovalev, pp. 125-6, Scheckner, pp. 156, 333-4.

Harper, Francis (b. 1865), of Feughs Glen, Aberdeen, farm worker, pub. poems in newspapers and in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 6 (1883), pp. 344-7. [S]

Harris, John (1824-84), of Camborne, Cornwall, copper miner, worked in Dolcoath mine, wrote for magazines, including essays on the land question, pubs. include Lays from the Mine, the Moor, and the Mountain (1853), Linto and Loner [and other poems] (London and Falmouth, 1881), My autobiography (London, Falmouth and Exeter, 1882)—includes a photograph. Ref John Gill, John Harris, the Cornish poet: a lecture on his life and works (Falmouth and Penryn, 1891), DNB, Vincent, pp. 14, 151, 182, 194, Wright, pp. 231-3, Reilly (1994), pp. 211-12, Reilly (2000), pp. 207-8; The John Harris Society Newsletter. [LC 5]

Harrison, John (1814-89), of Forglen, Aberdenshire, herd-boy from age 8, pub. The Laird of Restalrig’s Daughter (1857). Ref Edwards, 7 and 12 (1889), pp. xv-xvi. [S]

Harrison, John, seaman, pub. Three ballads: the clipper screw; Maximilian; Trafalgar (London, 1869). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 208.

Harrison, Susannah (1752-1784), of Ipswich, of poor parents, domestic servant from sixteen, then taught herself to read and write, permanent invalid from 1772, religious poet, Songs in the Night; By a Young Woman under Deep Afflictions, ed. John Conder (London, 1780), at least fifteen UK and six US editions by the 1820s, also pub. a broadside, A Call to Britain. Ref Fullard, pp. 414-18 & 557, Landry, DNB, Jackson (1993). 145-7, Cranbrook, pp. 202-3. [F] [LC 2]

? Hart, Samuel, miller’s son, quack-doctor and parish verse-maker of Kettleburgh, Suffolk, pub. Poem on the coronation and marriage of...Queen Victoria (nd, c. 1840). Ref Cranbrook, p. 204.

Hartley, Elizabeth (b. 1844), of Dumbarton, gardener’s daughter, pub. The prairie flower, and other poems (Dumbarton, 1870). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 209. [S] [F]

Hawkins, Susannah (1787-1868), of Ecclefechan, Dumfriesshire, blacksmith’s daughter, cattle herder and dairymaid: the proprietor of the Dumfries Courier pub. her volumes for free and she sold them door to door for 50 years, travelling as far as Manchester; The Rural Enthusiast, and other Poems (London, 1808), The Poetical Works (Dumfries, 1829). Ref DNB, Jackson (1993), p. 150. [S] [F]

Hawthorne, John, linen weaver, soldier, Poems, By John Hawthorn, Light Dragoon in the Inniskilling Regiment (Salisbury, 1779; BL 11630.b.5(4), BL 11632.d.19). Ref Lonsdale (1984), pp. 653-6, ESTC.

Hay, Alexander (b. 1826), of Newcastle upon Tyne, apprentice cabinet-maker, ship’s carpenter, tutor, journalist, songwriter. Ref Allan, pp. 560-4.

? Heany, James, Bookbinder, author of Oxford, the Seat of the Muses (2nd edn, 1738, Dobell 2956). Ref Dobell.

Heath, George (1844-69), of Gratton, Staffordshire, known as ‘The Moorland Poet' and 'The Invalid Poet’,   educated at village school, worked on his father’s farm, then as an apprentice builder, pub. two slim vols (Preludes, 1865; 2nd edn 1866 as Simple Poems); Heart Strains (1866), both printed locally—the latter by Mr. Hallowes of Leek); died of consumption at 25; The poems of George Heath, selected and arranged by J. Badnall, with a memoir by F. Redfern, memorial edition (1870, 2nd edn 1880). Ref Maidment (1987), p. 19, Staffs. Poets, pp. 254-60; inf. Patrick Regan & the George Heath web page: <>.

Heath, Noah (b. c. 1780), of Sneyd Green, Stoke, operative potter, later modeller and moulder, paralysed by an operation following a dog-bite, pub. Miscellaneous Poems, I (Hanley: James Amphlett, 1823) and II (Burslem: S. Brougham, 1829). Refs Staffs. Poets, pp. 131-2, and inf. Patrick Regan.

Heaton, William (1801-70), handloom weaver of Halifax, The Flowers of Calder Dale   (1847), and The Old Soldier, The Wandering Lover and Other Poems, together with a sketch of the Author’s Life (London, 1857). Ref BL 11650.d.15; E.P.Thompson, The Making of the English Working Class, p. 324; Vicinus (1974) p. 141, 149-51, 169, 177, Maidment (1987), pp. 344-7, Vincent, pp. 124-5, 183. [LC 5]

? Heavisides, Edward Marsh (d. 1849), a young printer and poet who died of cholera, pub. The Poetical and Prose Remains, ed. by Henry Heavisides (London: Longmans, 1850), subscriber’s list mainly from North-East England, printed in Stockton, first section is five short chapters on the writings of Charles Dickens. Ref Bob Heyes.

? Hedley, George Roberts (b. 1833), of Ovington, Northumberland, farmer in the Newcastle upon Tyne area, pub. Ballads, and other poems (London, 1885). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 219.

Henderson, Daniel M’Intyre (b. 1851), of Glasgow, wholesale draper, emigrated to Baltimore, bookkeeper, pub. poems in local and US newspapers and Edwards. Ref Edwards, 6 (1883), pp. 115-20 and 12 (1889), pp. 140-45 (this looks like an accidental duplication by Edwards: he’s done the entry twice, quite differently, with almost all different poems. [S]

Henrietta, Frank (1837-83), of Glasgow, son of a handloom weaver who d. when he was five, barber, soldier, pub. Poems and Lyrics (Airdrie, 1879), and tales of soldier life in India. Ref Reilly (2000), p. 217; Edwards 5 and 9 (1886), p. xxiii. [S]

Herbert, Henry (1816?-76?), of Fairford, Gloucester, shoemaker poet, pub. Autobiography of Henry Herbert, a Gloucestershire Shoemaker and Native of Fairford [in verse] (Gloucester, 1876), BL, [?1866 edition]. Ref Reilly (2000), p. 219.

? Herbison, David (‘The Bard of Dunclug’) (1800-80), of Ballymena, County Antrim, son of an innkeeper, blinded at three, sight regained later, emigrated to Canada, survived a shipwreck, returned to Ballymena as a weaver, pub. in Ulster periodicals, and as follows: The snow-wreath (Belfast and Ballymena, 1869), Children of the year, with other poems and songs (Belfast and Ballymena, 1876). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 219. [I]

Herd, Richard, shepherd of Howgill, Scraps of Poetry. An Essay on Free Trade (Kirkby Lonsdale: printed by Arthur Foster, 1837). Contains ‘Sir Walter Scott’ and ‘On the death of Lord Byron’. The majority of the poems were composed ‘while wandering upon the lofty fells of Howgill, in his occupation as a shepherd, without pen or paper, when the ear alone was consulted...not only composed, but committed to memory, amended, and corrected in the author’s in the case of the poet Bloomfield.’ Ref Johnson, item 428. [LC 5]

Hersee, William, ploughboy, Poems Rural and Domestic (Chichester: printed by W. Mason for Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown, and Johnson and Co, London, 1810), contains ‘Sonnet to Mr Bloomfield’. Ref Johnson, item 429.

Hetrick, Robert (1769-1849), brought up a weaver, later became blacksmith, Poems and Songs (Ayr, 1826), includes a ‘Prologue to the Gentle Shepherd’. Ref Johnson, item 431. [S]

Hewit, John, of Auchecrow, labourer and farm-labourr, wroe songs and ballads pn the ‘Witches of edincraw’, unpublished. Ref Crockett, p. 293. [S]

Hewitt, Alexander (1778-1850) of Lintlaw, Bunkle, Berwickshire, sailor, ploughman, pub. Poems (Berwick, 1807). Ref Crockett, pp. 114-16. [S]

? Hewitt, Richard (d. 1794), companion and amanuensis to the poet Blacklock; author of ‘Roslin Castle’ and other Scottish lyrics. Ref Eyre-Todd II, 86. [S]

? Hick, William, Leeds Chartist, author of The Chartist Song Book. Ref Kovalev, pp. 89-90, Shencker, pp. 157-8, 334.

Hickling, George (‘Rusticus’), of Cotgrave, Nottinghamshire, educated at the village school, verses written ‘direct from the heart and home of one who is essentially a working man’, pub. The Mystic Land (1856); The Pleasures of Life and Other Poems (Nottingham and London, 1861). Ref Bob Heyes, Reilly (1994), p. 224, Reilly (2000), p. 221.

Hill, E.S., working man of Nottingham and elsewhere, pub. Matthew Hart’s dream; or, discontent disconcerted: a ballad for working men, by one of themselves (Alfreton, Derby and London, 1862), The politics of the people: rhymed reason by a radical; by one of themselves (London, 1865), Russelas: a political poem, for “the people”; by one of themselves (London, 1865),  Melodies of the heart: poems (London, 1867). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 222.

? Hill, Mrs Robert, author of A Poem Sacred to Freedom and beneficence (Dublin, c. 1780]. [F]

? Hill, Thomas Ford (d. 1795), antiquary, collector of Ancient Erse Songs (1784).

Hird, James (1810-73), of Bingley, Yorkshire, self-taught, in a factory from six, later brewery manager, councillor, pub. A voice from the muses (London and Bradford, 1866). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 223.

? Hislop, James, shepherd and poet (1798-1827). Ref Shanks, pp. 129-35. [S]

Hodgson, Joseph (1783-1856), of Blackburn, handloom weaver, sometime librarian of the Mechanics’ Institute, prolific poet, ‘the earliest...of the Blackburn poets’. Ref Hull, pp. 17-26.

Hogan, Michael (‘The Bard of Thomond’) (1832-99), of Thomond gate, County Limerick, labourer, bank governor for Limerick Corporation, pub. in The nation and in small edition poetry pamphlets, and as follows: Lays and legends of Thomond, I (Limerick   1865), The story of Shawn-a-Scoob, Mayor of Limerick, who didn‘t know himself, nor anyone else, dedicated to the Corporation and the Catholic gentry of Limerick, by their grateful servant, the Bard of Thomond (Dublin, 1868-76, eight vols.). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 226. [I]

Hogg, James (1770-1835), The Ettrick Shepherd, pub. The Mountain Bard (1807), including a ‘Memoir of the Author’s Life’, and numerous other works. Ref Miles, ‘Crabbe to Coleridge’, pp. 173-210, Wilson, I, pp. 446-61, Cafarelli, 84, Powell, items 244-9, EPFTD, Miles, I, pp. 173-210 & IX, pp. 77-88, Richardson, p. 247, Vincent, pp. 14, 151. [LC 4] [S]

Hogg, John (b. 1839), of Kirkfieldbank, Lanarkshire, handloom weaver from nine, railwayman, pithead worker, pub. in Hamilton Advertiser and in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 9 (1886), pp. 163-6. [S]

Hogg, William (1822-89), of Cambusnethan, Wishaw, Lanarkshire, cowherd, butcher, Burns enthusiast, pub. That Hielan’ coo, and other poems (Glasgow, 1892). Ref Edwards, 6 (1883), pp. 370-4; Reilly (1994), p. 227. [S]

Hoggarth, James (b. 1834), of Ambleside, Westmorland, farmer’s son at Troutbeck, apprentice bobbin-manufacture, disabled by glaucoma, losing an eye, moved to Kendal, pub. Echoes from years gone by (Kendal, 1892). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 227.

Holcroft, Thomas (1745-1809), shoemaker, English Jacobin, wrote Memoirs of the late Thomas Holcroft, written by Himself, and continued to the Time of his Death from his Diary (1816), and numerous popular comedies and some prose tales: Elegies. I. On the death of Samuel Foote, Esq. II. On Age (1777), Duplicity. A comedy (1781), The Family Picture; or domestic dialogues on amiable subjects (1783), Human Happiness: or the Sceptic. A poem in six cantos (1783), Songs, duets, glees, choruses &c. in the comic opera of The Noble Peasant (1784), The Choleric Fathers: a comic opera (1785), Seduction; a comedy (1787), The School for Arrogance. A comedy (1791), Anna St. Ives (1792), The Road to Ruin, A comedy (1792), Heigh-ho! for a Husband (Dublin, 1794), Love’s Frailties. A comedy in five acts (1794), The adventures of Hugh Trevor (1794-97), A letter to the Right Hon. W. Windham in the intemperance and dangerous tendency of his public conduct (1795), A Man of Ten Thousand. A comedy (1796), Knave or not? A Comedy in Five Acts (1798), A Tale of Mystery, a melodrama (1802), Hear both Sides. A Comedy (1803), Travels from Hamburg through Westphalia, Holland, and the Netherlands, to Paris (1804), The Lady of the Rock, a melo-drama in two acts (1805), Memoirs of Bryan Perdue. A novel (1805), The Theatrical Recorder (periodical publication, 1805-6), Tales in verse; critical, satirical and humorous (1806), The Vindictive Man: a comedy (1806), Gaffer Gray. A favourite song (n. d.), The Deserted Daughter (n. d.). Ref Winks, pp. 304-8; Craik, I, pp. 407-116; Hobsbawm & Scott.

Holdsworth, Israel (b. 1816), of Armley, Leeds, weaver, bookkeeper, bookseller, pub. The ivy wreath; being original poems (Leeds: printed & published by the Author, 1854) [BL]; The literary pic-nic, and other poems (Leeds, 1872). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 227; COPA C. [LC 5]

? Hollamby, John, The unlettered muse (Hailsham, 1828), includes list of subscribers. Ref Johnson, item 446.

Holland, Joseph, ‘Appendix’ to ‘The Seasons of Spring’ (1806). ‘...little is known, except that he was for some years [farm] servant to Mr. Partridge of Croydon’ (quoted by Harvey). Ref Johnson, item 454, Harvey. [LC 4]

Holloway, William, friend and imitator of Bloomfield, author of The Peasant’s Tale: a Rural Poem (1802; 4th edn 1821), The Minor Minstrel; or, Poetical Pieces, chiefly Familiar & descriptive (1808), includes ‘The desolate Village—A Sketch from Nature’, ‘William the Thresher ’ and ‘To Robert Bloomfield on the Abolition of the Slave Trade’; ‘To Mr Bloomfield’ and other poems in Bloomfield, Remains (1824), I, 166-71. Ref Barrell & Bull, pp. 409-12; Sambrook, 1360, Harvey. [LC 4]

? Holroyd, Abraham, stationer, of Bradford (?poet), financially helped by Titus Salt. Ref Vicinus (1974), p. 161, 171.

? Holt, Jane (fl. 1701-1717, servant, playwright, pub. The Fairy Tale…With Other Poems (1717). Ref Lonsdale (1989), pp. 72-3. [F] [LC 1]

Holyoake, George Jacob (‘Ion’) (1817-1906), Birmingham tinsmith and whitesmith, Chartist, secularist, imprisoned for blasphemy, pub. Blasts from Bradlaugh’s own trumpet: ballads, extracts, cartoons, versified, selected and sketched by ‘Ion’ (London, 1882), Songs of love & sorrow (Manchester and London, 1887). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 229.

Home, James (d. 1868), dry-stone dyker and poet. Ref Shanks, pp. 154-6. [S]

? Hood, Thomas 1799-1845), engraver, humorist, author of The Song of the Shirt (1843). Ref Schenker, pp. 159-60, 334, Goodridge (1999), item 54, EPFTD, Miles, III, p. 215 & IX, pp. 249-70, Ricks, pp. 66-74.

Hopkin, Lewis, Welsh carpenter poet, fl. 1720s. Ref inf Tim Burke. [W]

Horsfield, Louisa Adelaide (1830-65), The Cottage Lyre: Being Miscellaneous Poetry (1862). Ref ABC, pp. 516-18, Reilly (2000), p. 232. [F] [LC 6]

Horsley, James (d. 1891), of Alnwick, orphaned in Newcastle, worked as stable boy, cabin boy, journalist/writer, songwriter. Ref Allan, pp. 495-501.

Hosken, J. D., postman poet of Helston, Cornwall, pub. Verses by the Way (1893). Inf Bob Heyes.

Hossack, Annie, of Burray, Orkney, domestic servant, dressmaker, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 12 (1889), pp. 182-5. [S] [F]

Houlding, Henry (d. 1901), of Burnley, factory worker, journalist, pub., an account of a foot journey to London, and Poems (Burnley, 1874). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 233. [LC 6]

Howard, Nathaniel, a charity boy, Bickleigh Vale, with other poems (York, 1804). Ref Johnson, item 465.

Howden, Robert (b. 1776), wrote numerous unpublished poems including the satirical ‘The Raven and Mavis’, and the humorous story, The King’s Welcome to Edinburgh (1822). Ref Edwards, 2 (1881), 34-6. [S]

Howell, John (1774-1830), apprenticed as a weaver; Welsh and wrote in Welsh; Blodau Dyfed (1824); other titles in Welsh. Ref DNB. [W]

Hoyle, William (1831-86), of Rossendale, Lancashire, cotton spinner, temperance reformer, vegetarian, pub. Daisy ballads and recitations (London and Manchester, 1891). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 235.

Hugh, Alexander (b. 1854), of Kirkcaldy, grocer, pub poems in the newspapers and in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 13 (1890), p. 232-4. [S]

? Hugman, John, of Halesworth, An itinerant tanner, published all round South-East, selling his own books and prints as he went, Original poems, in the moral, heroic, pathetic, and other styles, by a traveller, eighteen editions between 1825 and 1836, published around the south-east (mostly in Suffolk), ‘an interesting example of wide circulation being due the merit of the work but to unprecedented efforts at distribution by the author’ (Johnson); Charles Lamb owned a copy. Ref Johnson, item 469, inf. Bob Heyes; Cranbrook, pp. 208-9.

? Huish, Alexander, Chartist poet, author of ‘The Radical’s Litany’. Ref Sheckner, pp. 161-2.

? Hull, George (b. 1863), of Blackburn, clerk, son of a coal merchant, school educated, author of The heroes of the heart, and other lyrical poems (Preston and London, 1894); (ed) Poets and Poetry of Blackburn (Blackburn, 1902). Ref Hull, pp. xii-xxxii, Maidment (1987), pp. 170-1, 277-8, Reilly (1994), p. 236.

Humbles, John, a Bedfordshire peasant, wrote ‘Thoughts on the Creation, Fall, and Regeneration’ (1826).

Hunter, Charles Fergus (b. 1846), apprentice tinsmith, railwayman, pub. poems in The Scotsman and Edwards. Ref Edwards 9 (1886), pp. 30-2. [S]

Hunter, Robert (b. 1854), of Hawick, powerloom tuner, pub. poems in newspapers and Masonic Magazine. Ref Edwards, 3 (1881), pp. 250-3 [S]

? Huntington, William, illegitimate tenth son of a Kentish labourer, poet, Methodist preacher. Ref Unwin p. 77.

? Hurn, David, farmer of Holbeach, Lincolnshire, Rural Rhymes, or, a collection of epistolary, humorous and descriptive pieces (Spalding and London, 1813). Ref Clare, Early Poems, I, pp. 567n102-3, 573n302-3, II, pp. 323-4 and note.

Hutchinson, John. (b. 1851), of Links, Kirkcaldy, glass-worker, sailcloth tenter, pub. How to make life worth living, or golden thoughts in prose and verse. Ref Edwards, 13 (1890), pp. 183-6. [S]

Hutcheon, Rebecca (b. c. 1851), of Bowglens, cow-herder, pub. poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 3 (1881), pp. 223-5. [S] [F]

Hutton, Mary (fl.1831-6), of Sheffield, wife of a poor penknife cutler, pub. Sheffield Manor, and other poems (Sheffield, 1831); The Happy Isle; and other poems (1836); Cottage Tales and poems (1842). Ref Jackson (1993), p. 170. [F] [LC 5]

Hyslop, James (1798-1827), shepherd, of Kirkconnel, Dumfriesshire, schoolmaster on board a man-of-war, wrote ‘The Cameronian’s Dream’ (1825) and other poems about the Covenanters. Ref Wilson, II, pp. 181-90, ?EPFTD. [S]

Hyslop, John (1837-92), of Kirkland, Dumfriesshire, landworker, engineering apprentice, letter carrier, known as ‘The Postman Poet’, pub. The dream of a masque, and other poems (Kilmarnock, 1882), Memorial volume of John Hyslop, the postman poet, ed. by William Johnson (Kilmarnock, 1895). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 239, Murdoch, pp. 313-16. [S]

? Hyslop, Mrs, wife of John Hyslop (1837-92), contributed poems to his volume. Inf Kaye Kossick. [F]

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? Iago, Richard, author of Labour and Genius: or, the Mill Stream, and the Cascade, a Fable, Inscrib’d to the Late William Shenstone (Dodsley, 1768, Dobell 2969). Ref Dobell.

Ibbett, William Joseph, poetical postman, with a particular prediliction for private printings--had a press of his own, and used other private presses, a friend of Buxton Forman, pub. Poems by Antaeus (privately published, n.p., 1889), first edn. Ref inf. Bob Heyes (from Charles Cox catalogue 42, Summer 2001).

Ince, Thomas (1850-1902), of Bingley, Yorkshire, son of a soldier, educated in Wigan Union Workhouse, worked as a collier and labourer, studied medical botany, became a herbalist, moved to Blackburn, pub. Beggar Manuscripts: An Original Miscellany in Verse and Prose (Blackburn, 1888). Ref Hull, pp. 320-4, Maidment (1987), pp. 270-2, 348-50, Reilly (1994), p. 240. [LC 6]

Inglis, John (1813-87), of Hearthstone, Tweedsmuir, Peeblesshire, shepherd, later Edinburgh businessman, pub. Poems and songs (Edinburgh, 1866). Ref Edwards, 5 and 12 (1889), p. xxii; Reilly (2000), p. 241. [S]

Inglis, John (b. 1857), of Hawick, Roxburghshire, framework knitter, tweed factory worker, emigrated to U.S. but returned, pub. The border land, and other poems (Kelso, 1879). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 241. [S]

Inglis, Robert Stirling (1835-86), of Heriot, Midlothian, shepherd’s son, shepherd, pub. Whisperings from the hillside (Edinburgh, 1886; 2nd end 1888). Ref Edwards, 10 (1887), pp. 297-8; Reilly (1994), p. 241. [S]

Ingram, William, (b. 1765), of Cuminestown, Aberdeenshire, weaver, schoolmaster, pub. Poems in the English and Scottish Dialects (Aberdeen, 1812). Ref Edwards, 12 (1889), pp. 393-6. [S]

Inskip, Thomas, watchmaker, friend of Bloomfield, wrote ‘Epitaph on Robert Bloomfield,’ Bloomfield, Remains, I, 184-5; Cant, A Satire (1843). Ref Powell, item 261 (this copy contains a verse-letter from Inskip to Clare).

Ironside, Daniel (b. 1825), of Bonnykelly, New Deer, cattle herder, joiner, religious poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 10 (1887), pp. 400-2. [S]

Irwin, Anne (b. 1835), of Slade, Ilfracombe, domestic servant, author of Combe Flowers: Poems, ed. by Elizabeth Marriott (Ilfracombe: John Tait, 1878, 2nd edn 1879); Autumn Berries: poems (Ilfracombe, 1889). Ref Wright, pp. 268-9, Reilly (1994), p. 242, Reilly (2000), p. 242, Bob Heyes. [F] [LC 6]

Isherwood, Gideon (b. 1860), of Blackburn, plumber, Water Inspector, later an invalid, pub. poems in the newspapers. Ref Hull, pp. 414-16.

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? Jackson, Ferdinando, calico weaver of Rainow, Cheshire, pub. Poems, descriptive and miscellaneous (Macclesfield, 1829). Ref Johnson, item 485.

? Jackson, John, Barythymia, a poem addressed to the Sons and Daughters of Adversity (1810); An address to time (1807); also wrote to Bloomfield.

? James, James (1832-1902), Welsh weaver and co-author with his father of the Welsh national anthem. Collections in Welsh. [DNB]. [W]

? James, Joseph, confectioner, pub. The Workman’s Sabbath and other poems (London, 1859). Ref Goodridge (1999), item 59 (?may be another James Joseph).

? James, Nicholas, author of ‘The Complaints of Poverty’ (using the pronoun ‘we’ for the poverty-stricken), pub. in his Poems on Several Occasions (Truro, 1742). Ref Lonsdale (1984), p. 342-3, 846n.

? Japp, Alex H (b. 1837), of Dun, Brechin, carpenter’s son, draper, attended Edinburgh university and became a journalist, pub. numerous proe works, and poems in newpapers and magazines. Ref Edwards, 2 (1881), pp. 106-11. [S]

Jardine, James (b. 1852), of Broadmeadow, Ecclefechan, orphan, tweed factory worker, Hawickk tweed merchant, 2 poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 2 (1881), pp. 239-41. [S]

Jeffrey, Agnes (b. 1848), of Peebleshire, domestic servant from age thirteen, Poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 9 (1886), pp. 337-40. [S] [F]

Jeffryes, Alexander E. W (b. 1874), of Dysart, Fifeshire, house-painter, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 14 (1891), pp. 219-26. [S]

Job, William, gardener of Bristol, pub. Poems On Various Subjects (1785). [LC 3]

Johnston, Ellen (1835-73), Autobiography, Poems and Songs of Ellen Johnston, The Factory Girl (Dundee, 1867). Ref Wilson, II, pp. 525-6, Klaus (1998), Swindells, Julia, Victorian Writing and Working Women (Polity Press, 1985), Maidment (1987), p. 19, Boos (1995), ABC, pp. 574-5, Reilly (2000), p. 249. [LC 6] [S] [F]

Johnston, James (b. 1849), of Whitburn, plasterer, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 3, (1881), pp. 335-6. [S]

Johnston, James M, a Belfast working man, pub. Jottings in verse (Belfast, 1887). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 251. [I]

Johnston, John (1781-1880), of Clackleith, Sanquhar, Dumfriesshire, sheep-farmer’s son, soldier, schoolmaster, pub. Lord Nelson: a poem,   with a biographical sketch of his [Johnson’s] life by A.B. Todd (London, 1874). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 249. [S]

Johnstone, Alexander, of Paisley (fl. c. ?1840), gardener, no separate collection. Ref Brown. [S]

? Johnstone, James, stonemason and verse-writer, father of Ellen Johnston, went to America . Ref Valentine Cunningham, The Victorians (Blackwell, 2000), p. 749. [S]

Johnstone, John Craighouse (1761-1846), agricultural labourer, ?shoemaker, Poems on various subjects but chiefly illustrative of the manners and superstitions of Annandale (Dumfries, 1820), Poems on various subjects, with additional poems and a memoir of the author (1857). Ref Winks, p. 313, Johnson, item 494. [S]

Johnstone, Thomas (1812-70), of Paisley, apprenticed to watchmaker, unsuccessful so became a soldier and served in America, worked in a store in Liverpool and served as drill instructor, pub. posthumous collection, A Soldier’s Thoughts in Verse and Prose, with prefatory note by James M’Naught (Edinburgh, 1871). Ref Brown, Reilly (2000), p. 250. [S]

Jones, Christopher, (fl. 1775-1782), journeyman woolcomber, author of Sowton. A Village Conference: Occasioned by a Late Law decision (Crediton, 1775); The Miscellaneous Poetic Attempts Uneducated Journeyman Wool-Comber (Exon./London: Freeman/Kearsley, [1786]), ‘by C. or G. Jones’, MR LXXIV, 146-7; CR LXI, 398. Ref Jackson (1985). [LC 2]

? Jones, Ebenezer (1820-60), ‘spasmodic’ poet, Chartist, Studies in Sensation and Event (1843), fuller edition with life pub. 1879. Ref Kovalev, pp. 127-9, James, p. 172, Ashraf (1975), pp. 200-8, Maidment (1987), p. 39, Scheckner, pp. 165-7, 335, DNB, EPFTD, Miles, V, p. 18, Ricks, pp. 162-4.

Jones, Ernest [Charles] (1819-68), ‘spasmodic’ poet, Chartist, pub. poems in The Northern Star; The Battle Day and Other Poems (1855). Ref Kovalev, pp. 135-79, James, pp. 172-3, Vicinus (1974), pp. 100-2, Ashraf (1975), pp. 193-99, Maidment (1987), pp. 44-6, 67-73, 195-6, Rizzo, 242, Sheckner, pp. 168-224, 335-6, Janowitz, esp. pp. 173-94, EPFTD, Miles, IV, p. 547, Ricks, pp. 326-7. [LC 5]

Jones, Henry (1721–1770), bricklayer poet. Ref Tinker, pp. 95-7, Rizzo, 242, EPFTD, Christmas, pp. 130-56. [LC 2] [I]

Jones, Henry, shoemaker, Lucy a Dramatic Poem (dating uncertain).

Jones, John (b. 1774), servant, pub. Attempts in verse...With some account of the writer, written by himself, and an introductory essay on the lives and works of our uneducated poets by Robert Southey, Poet Laureate. Ref Southey, pp. 1-14, 167-80 (see also Childers’s Introduction), Maidment (1983), 84, Rizzo, 243, Richardson, p. 248, Harvey. [LC 5]

? Jones, Mary (1707-1778), author of The Lass of the Hill (?1740); Miscellanies in Prose and Verse (Oxford, London and Bath, 1750). Ref CBEL II, 368; Poems by Eminent Ladies (2 vols, 1755, includes life), Rowton, pp. 151-3, Foxon p. 391, Lonsdale (1989), pp. 155-65, Fullard, p. 559, Burmester, item 427 and p. 123 (image), Christmas, pp. 95, 116. [F]

Jones, William Ellis (1796-1848), Welsh poet and journeyman printer; ‘To the Most Noble the Marquis of Bute, on the Opening of Bute Dock’ (London 1839); other works appear to be in Welsh. [W]

? Jordan, Agnes C, of Leicester, ‘a soldier’s daughter, wife and mother’, pub. Poems; social, military, and domestic (London and Leicester, 1862). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 250. [F]

? Jordan, John (1746-1809), ‘the Stratford poet’ (‘little education’). Ref John Mair, The Fourth Forger (1938), DNB;   Warwicks. Poets, pp. 169-73.

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? Keats, John (1795-1821), poet, son of an Ostler. Ref Goodridge (1999), item 60, Powell, item 269-70, EPFTD, Miles, III, p. 1.

? Keegan, John (1809-49) Irish ballad writer and ‘peasant’; many pieces appeared in Dolman’s Magazine and are in Hayes’s Ballads of Ireland and the compilation The Harp of Erin; was preparing his own collection at the time of his death. [I]

Keighley, Arthur Montague (b. 1842), of humble family of twelve, Sunday school education, railway porter, station master at Bredon, pub. The emigrant and other poems, with short essays on the seasons (Keighley and London, 1866). Ref Reilly (2000), pp. 252-3.

? Kelly, Hugh, ‘Jack Spatter’ (1739-1777), misc. writer, son a of a Dublin tavern-keeper. Ref DNB, NCBEL. [I]

Kelly, James (1848-79), of Cambusnethan, Wishaw, Lanarkshire, blacksmith’s son, printer, pub. The printers’ carnival, and other poems (Airdrie, 1875). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 253. [S]

Kelly, Joan, of Irvine, Ayrshire, posthumous child, lived with her mother (a nurse), later a permanent invalid in the poorhouse, pub. Miscellaneous poems (1884). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 256. [S] [F]

? Kennedy, James, author of Treason!!! Or, Not Treason!!! Alias the Weaver’s Budget (1795: BL 992.h.22(2)). Ref Lonsdale (1984), pp. 802-4, 856n, ESTC. Involved in Friends of the People in Edinburgh in 1793; Johnson, item 506 poss. relates. [S]

Kennedy, James, farm labourer and agitator, machinist, emigrated to New York, pub. poems in periodicals and in Edwards. Ref   Edwards, 6 (1883), pp. 213-22. [S]

Kennedy, John (1789-1833), Scottish poet and weaver; published collection in 1826; The Poetical Works of John Kennedy (Ayr, 1818) [DNB]. [S]

Kennedy, Thomas (b. 1823), of Cowgate, Galashiels, Selkirkshire, weaver, pub. Poems (Galashiels, 1889). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 258, Murdoch, pp. 207-11. [S]

? Kenrick, William (1725?-1779), son of a staymaker, misc. writer.

Kenworthy, James, of Manchester, Nineteenth-century poet. Ref James, p. 171. [?No other source..]

Kerr, Robert (1811-48), the Urr poet, farm labourer, three short poems in ‘Bards of Galloway’ 1888; Trans. Dumfr. Gall. Nat. Hist. Antiq. Soc., 3 ser 21; Works, ed. Malcolm McLelan Harper, 1891. [S]

Kilpatrick, Hugh (‘Eagle Eye’) (1832-1909), Paisley weaver and manufacturer, emigrated to America and returned, pub. The Death of Wallace or the Spectre of Elderslie and Other Poems (Paisley, 1909). Ref Leonard, pp. 337-9. [S] [OP]

King, Daniel (1844-91 or -92), of Glasgow, orphaned herdboy, shipyard foreman-riveter, freemason, pub. ‘Tongue Discipline’ in Edwards, and The Auchmountain warbler: songs, poems &c. (Paisley, Edinburgh and London). Ref Edwards, 9 (1886), pp. 244-8; Leonard, pp. 330-1, Reilly (1994), p. 260. [S]

King, James (1776–1849), of Paisley, trained as weaver, served in military, pub. pieces in periodicals. Ref Brown. [S]

King, John (1779-1837), of Paisley, weaver, periodical publications. Ref Brown. [S]

King, John, of Lincolnshire and Scarborough, farm labourer in Lincolnshire as a boy, pub. Rustic lays (Scarborough, c. 1863), Sprays, leaflets and blossoms (London and Scarborough, 1869), Hebeora (London and Scarborough, 1872), Rustic pictures and broken rhymes (London and Scarborough, 1874). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 257.

King, Robert (b. 1812), of Paisley, weaver, later school teacher. Ref Brown. [S]

Kinlay, James (b. 1838), of Cupar Fife, house-painter, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 14 (1891), pp. 226-9. [S]

Kirby, Charles (‘The Wharfedale Poet’) (b. 1843), of Tadcaster, Yorkshire, cattle-trader boy, joiner, asylum inmate in later life, lived in Leeds, pub. Wharfedale poems (Leeds, 1870), Word pictures (Leeds, 1874),  A royal wreath (London and Leeds, 1875) Ref Reilly (2000), p. 258.

Knight, William, shoemaker of new Pitsligo, Aberdeenshire, pub. The Valley of the Isla: a descriptive poem (Peterhead, 1864). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 260. [S]

Knox, Anna (b. 1823), of Leith Walk, Edinburgh, gardener’s daughter, suffered injuries after a fall, pub. Effusions from a sick bed: or, Israel in sorrow, Israel in joy, and other poems (Glasgow, 1840); Poems by Anna Knox (1889). Ref Edwards, 14 (1891), pp. 361-6; Reilly (2000), p. 260. [LC 5] [S] [F]

Knox, Isa Craig (‘Isa’) (1831-1903), of Edinburgh, hosier’s daughter, orphaned in childhood, left school at ten, became a journalist, lived in Edinburgh and London feminist and social campaigner, pub. Duchess Agnes. etc. (London, 1864), Songs of consolation (London, 1874).   Ref Reilly (2000), p. 260. [S] [F]

Knox, Jane Ogden, of Keith, Banffshire, no formal education, pub. Religious poetry, on various subjects (Keith, 1870). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 260. [S] [F]

Knox, Thomas (1818-79), of Greenlaw, haberdasher, labour agitator, temperance advocate, pub. Rhymed convictions in songs, hymns, and recitations for social meetings , and recitations for social meetings and firesides (London); Scottish temperance songs to Scotish airs (Paisley, 1880). Ref Edwards, 9 (1886), pp. 107-16; Crockett, pp. 173-8. [S]

Knox, William (1789-1825), farmer poet, ‘dissolute friend of Scott’, The lonely hearth and other poems (North Shields, 1818), Songs of Israel (Edinburgh, 1824). Shanks, pp. 135-8, Johnson, item 518. [S]

? Knowles, Herbert (1798-1817), w/c youth, poet, orphan humble parents, near Leeds pub. The Three Tabernacles (Lines Written in the Churchyard in Richmond, Yorkshire, (written 1816, pub. posthumously, 1818). Ref Miles, X, p. 683.

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Lackington, James (1746-1815), shoemaker poet, oral ballad composer, before enormous success as bookseller, pub. Memoirs of the first forty five years of James Lackington (1791). [LC 3]

? Laidlaw, William (1780-1845), of Yarrow, Selkirkshire, farmer’s son, poet, amanuensis and land-stewart to Sir Walter Scott, author of the song ‘Lucy’s Flittin’’, published in periodicals. Ref Wilson, II, pp. 35-7, Shanks, pp. 138-41, Douglas, pp. 300-1. [S]

Laing, Alexander (b. 1840), of Forres, Moorayshire, agricultural worker, nurseryman, pub. in local papers and in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 6 (1883), pp. 147-53. [S]

Laing, Alexander (1787-1857), ‘the Brechin poet’, apprenticed to flax-dresser, and worked as one for 14 years; contributed to miscellanies and newspapers; pub. The Harp of Caledonia (1819); Wayside Flowers (1846, 2nd edn. 1850); also edited Burns and Tannahill. Ref Wilson, II, pp. 93-8, Johnson, items 520-2, Edwards, 2 (1881). pp. 273-80. [S]

Laing, Allan S .(b. 1857), of Dundee, of a humble family, working from age 10, upholsterer, businessman, pub. poems in the People’s Friend and in Murdoch. Ref Edwards, 12 (1889), pp. 59-65; Murdoch, pp. 427-30. [S]

? La Mont, Eugene, popular Chartist poet. Ref Kovalev, pp. 72-3, Scheckner, pp. 224-5, 337-8.

Lamberton, William (b. 1828), of Larch Bank, Kilmaurs, shoemaker, teacher and lay preacher, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 10 (1887), pp. 375-9. [S]

Lamont, Duncan (b. 1842), of Lochgilphead, Argyllshire, blacksmith in Greenock, pub. Poems and Songs (Greenock, 1895). Ref Edwards, 9 (1886), pp. 303-10; Reilly (1994), p. 265. [S]

? Lane, John, tailor (fl. 1792-1836), pub. The Battle of Loncarty (London 1836); Criticism and Taste, A Satire in Verse (1834).

Lane, William (b. 1744), ‘a poor labouring man’ of Flackwell-Heath, High Wycombe, Bucks., pub, Poems on the following subjects...with several detached pieces... (Reading and London, 1798, further edition or collection of 1806). Ref Harvey [who says first pub. is 1792], Johnson, item 524, Jarndyce, item 1427. [LC 3]

Langford, John Alfred (b. 1823), of Birmingham, chairmaker, pub. in Howitt’s Journal and elsewhere. Ref  Warwicks. Poets, pp. 248-50.

Langton, Millicent, of Leicester, Sunday-school educated factory worker, pub. Musings of the work-room (Leicester, 1865). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 266. [F]

Latto, William Duncan   (b. 1823), of Ceres, Fife, handloom weaver, teacher, wrote for Peoples’ Journal, pub. The twa bulls: a metrical tale, for the times (Dundee, Edinburgh, Fife and Montrose, c. 1860). Ref Edwards, 3 (1881), 37-42, Reilly (2000), p. 27. [S]

Lauder, James (b. 1841), of Leith, Midlothian, blacksmith’s son, street musician in Leith, wrote for The Scotsman, pub. Warblings of a caged bird (Leith, 1870). Ref Edwards, 6 (1883), pp. 362-6; Reilly (2000), p. 267. [S]

Law, Samuel (fl. 1772) Weaver, of Barewise, Lancashire, author of A Domestic Winter-Piece, or, a Poem exhibiting a full view of the Author’s Dwelling Place in the Winter-Season, in Two Parts (Leeds 1772, Dobell 2993, BL T. 349(4)). Ref Dobell, ESTC; E. P. Thompson, The Making of the English Working Class (1963), p. 324; Keegan (2003). [LC 2]

Laycock, Samuel (1826-93), of Marsden, Yorkshire, worked in a mill from age nine, later a cloth looker, made redundant in the Cotton Famine and wrote the twelve ‘Lyrics of the Cotton Famine’, pub. Lancashire poems, tales and recitations (Manchester and London, 1875), Warblin’s fro’ an owd songster (Oldham, London and Manchester, 1893, 3rd enlarged edn, 1894); Collected Writings (2nd edition, Oldham, 1908). Ref Harland, pp. 377-9, 398-400, 459-62, 500-1, 506-8, 510-11, 515-16, 547-52, Ashraf (1975), pp. 255-7, Maidment (1987), pp. 253-61, Hollingworth, p. 153, Zlotnick, pp. 206-7; Reilly (1994), p. 272, Reilly (2000), p. 268. [LC 6]

Leapor, Mary (1722-1751), pub. Poems upon Several Occasions (1748-51). Ref Lonsdale (1989), pp. 194-217, Fullard, p. 560, Shiach, pp. 54-6, Rizzo, 242-3, 249-54, Milne (1999), pp. pp. 29-59, Rowton, pp. 132-5, Richard Greene, Mary Leapor; Christmas, pp. 22, 161-83; Keegan (2003). [F] [LC 2]

? Learmont, John, Dalkeith gardener, ‘An Address to the Plebeians’ in Poems Pastoral, Satirical, Tragic and Comic (Edinburgh, 1791). Ref Lonsdale (1984), pp. 783-5, 855n; CBEL II, 972, Christmas, pp. 207-8. [S]

Leatherland, John (1812-74), of Kettering, weaver, Chartist, Essays and Poems with a brief Autobiographical Memoir (London and Leicester, 1862). Refs: Ashton and Roberts, ch. 4, pp. 58-64, Vincent, pp. 124-5, 176-7, 184, Reilly (2000), p. 270. [LC 6]

? Lee, Helen, of Poulton-le-Fylde, Lancashire, pub. Bits o’ things (Manchester, 1893), Manchester Public Library. Ref Reilly (1994), p. 274. [F]

Lee, John (b. 1797), of Montrose, Angus, soldier’s son, shoemaker, bookseller, clerk  printer, pub. Wild flowers in solitude, 2nd edn (Montrose, 1875). Ref Edwards, 3 (1881), pp. 59-63; Reilly (2000), p. 271. [S]

Lee, Thomas, Nottingham framework-knitter poet. Ref Harvey.

Lees, Joseph (‘Joseph O’Randall’) (1748-1824), of Glodwick, handloom weaver and schoolteacher, probable (?co-)author of ‘Jone O’ Grinfilt’ poems. Ref Vicinus (1969), 31-5, Hollingworth, p. 153.

? Lefevre, Jonathan, of Bristol, Chartist poet. Ref Kovalev, pp. 74-5, Scheckner, pp. 226-7, 338.

? Leigh, Helen of Middlewich, Manchester, author of Miscellany Poems (Manchester, 1788), wife of a country curate and mother of seven children, pub. by subscription. Ref Lonsdale (1989), pp. 420-2, Dobell 857, BL 11630.d.14(7). Ref ESTC. [F]

? Leighton, Robert (1822-69), of Dundee, largely self-taught orphan,  travelling businessman, manager, pub. Records and other poems (1880) and Musings (dnk). Ref Murdoch, pp. 180-4. [S]

Leiper, Andrew, of Paisley, weaver. Ref Brown. [S]

Leno, John Bedford (1824-94), of Uxbridge, Middlesex, shoemaker/printer and poet/reciter, edited the journal St. Crispin and pub. The Art of Boot- and Shoe-making. A practical handbook (London, 1885); also pub. Herne’s Oak, and other miscellaneous poems (1853), The Poetic Magazine (periodical publication, 1860-1), King Labour’s Song Book (1861), An essay for the nine hours movement (tract, 1861), Female Labour (tract, 1863), Drury Lane Lyrics, and other poems (1868), Kimburton, a story of village life, and other poems (1875-6), The Anti-Tithe Journal (periodical publication, 1881), The Last Idler, and other poems (London, 1889), The Aftermath. A collection of Poems, with Autobiography of the Author (London, 1892). Ref Ashraf (1975), pp. 244-54, Maidment (1987), p. 19, Vincent, p. 194, Ashton & Roberts, ch. 7, pp. 76-96, Hobsbawm and Scott, p. 107n, Reilly (1994), p. 279, Reilly (2000), pp. 273-4. [LC 6]

? Leonard, John, of Gateshead, joiner, son of a gardener, author of ‘Winlaton Hopping’ and much political verse. Ref Allan, pp. 128-32

Leslie, Eliza A., of Paisley, blacksmith’s wife, pub. Stray leaves (Edinburgh, 1866). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 274. [S] [F]

Leslie, Peter (‘John Pindar’) (b. 1836), of Glenvale, Fife, of humble origins, coalminer, soldier, pub. Random rhymes, ed. by A. M. Houston (Cupar, 1893). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 279. [S]

Levack, George W. (b. 1846), of Glasgow, tailor, blacksmith, pub. vol of poems in 1882. Ref Edwards, 6 (1883), pp. 53-6. [S]

? Lewis, David, farmer, The Landscape and Other Poems (York, 1815). Lewis is very briefly described under the DNB entry for another David Lewis (1683?-1760), but has no entry of his own, and is not easily found. Ref DNB; William Grainger, Poets and Poetry of Yorkshire (1868), II, p. 309.

? Lewis, Joseph, Lancelot Poverty Struck (1758) [possibly a printer? Issues of attribution?].

Lewis, Stewart [not Stuart as per DNB] (1756-?1818), tinker and poet; Scottish, may have also been a tailor. The African Slave; with other poems and songs (Edinburgh, 1816); Fair Helen of Kirconnel Lee. A poem (4th ed., Dumfries, 1817). Ref Wilson, II, p. 526, DNB. [LC 3] [S]

Lickbarrow, Isabella, Poetical Effusions (Kendal: M. and R. Branthwaite; London: J. Richardson, 1814); A Lament upon the Death of Her Royal Highness the Princess Charlotte. And Alfred, a Vision (Liverpool, 1818). Ref Curran, Goodridge (1999), item 66, Johnson, item 535, Jackson (1993), pp. 201-2. [F] [LC 4]

? Linton, William James (‘Abel Reid’) (1812-97), wood engraver, Chartist, author of The English Republic (1851); Love-lore (poems) (Hamden, Connecticut, 1887); Poems and translations (London, 1889); Broadway ballads, collected for the centenniel commemoration of the Republic 1876, by Abel Reid (Hamden, Connecticut, 1893); Love-lore, and other, early and late, poems (Hamden, Connecticut, 1895); Memories (London, 1895), edited Poetry of Amercia: Selections from one hundred American poets from 1776 to 1876, with an introductory review of colonial poetry, and some specimens from negro melody (1878). Ref F. B. Smith, Radical Artisan, William James Linton 1812-97 (Manchester, 1973), Gleckner, Robert F., ‘W.J. Linton, a Latter-day Blake’, Bulletin of Research in the Humanities, 85, no. 2 (Summer 1982), 208-27; Vicinus (1974), pp. 98-100, Maidment (1987), pp. 40-1, 62, 73-84, 96 [image], Kovalev, pp. 180-201, Scheckner, pp. 228-56, 338-40, EPFTD, Miles, IV, p. 377, Reilly (1994), p. 283, Reilly (2000), p. 277.

Lister, David (b. 1865), of Ceres, Fife, son of a labourer and a handloom weaver, apprenticed to a chemist, managed a chemist’s shop, presented his work in recitals, wrote for periodicals, taught elocution, pub, Temperance poems for recital: dramatic and humorous (Edinburgh, 1888). Ref Edwards, 14 (1891), pp. 70-76; Reilly (1994), p. 283. [S]

Lister, Thomas, Barnsley cart driver, later a prominent naturalist, pub. The Rustic Wreath: Poems, Moral, Descriptive, & Miscellaneous (Leeds, 1834), presented copy in Clare’s library, gift of the author, sold 3,000 copies (Bob Heyes). Ref Vicinus (1974), p. 171, Crossan, 37, Powell, item 283, Johnson, item 541. [LC 5]

Little, David, of Blackburn, fl. 1861, no biographical data, but the poems clearly indicate impoverishment. Ref Hull, pp. 134-7.

Little, Janet, later Richmond (1759-1813), servant, married a labourer, pub. The Poetical Works of Janet Little, the Scotch Milkmaid (Air[e], 1792), BL 11646.h.10. Ref Dobell, Lonsdale (1989), pp. 453-5, Rizzo, 243, Milne (1999), pp. 174-210, Johnson, item 542, Jackson, pp.203-4, ESTC. [LC 3] [S] [F]

Livingstone, William (1776-1849), of Paisley, weaver, actor; published in periodicals. Ref Brown. [S]

? Llwyd, Richard, ‘began life as a domestic servant but applied himself with great diligence to education and self-improvement’ (Johnson), Beaumaris Bay (Chester, [1800]), Gayton Wake, or Mary Dod (Chester, 1804); Poems. Tales, odes, sonnets, translations from the British (Chester, 1804), The poetical works of Richard Llwyd, the bard of Snowdon (London, [1837]). Ref Johnson, items 546-9. [W]

Lochore, Robert (1762-1852), Glasgow shoemaker, Willie’s Vision, or the de’il personified by...the collier [and other pieces] (1796), The foppish taylor; or Fancy disgrac’d (1796), Margret and the Minister. a true tale (1796), A morning walk (1796), Patie and Ralph, an elegiac pastoral on the death of Robert Burns (1797), Tales in Rhyme and Minor Pieces, in the Scottish Dialect (1815). Ref Wilson, I, pp. 382-6, Johnson, items 550-1, 891. [LC 3] [S]

? Lock, Joseph , of Bourton-on-the-Water, Gloucestershire, known as ‘sightless Joe’, pub. Thoughts in rhyme (Bourton-on-the-Water, 1870). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 279.

? Lockman, John (1698-1771), miscellaneous writer.

Logan, Alexander (‘The Laureate of the Household’) (b. 1833), of Edinburgh, orphaned tin-plate worker, songwriter and dialect poet, pub. Auld reekie musings: being poems and lyrics (Edinburgh, 1864). Ref Reilly (2000), pp. 280-1, Edwards, 2 (1881), 30-3; Murdoch, pp. 270-4. [S]

Logan, Thomas (b. 1835), of Edinburgh, humble circumstances, orphaned, brother of Alexander Logan, lived in New York, returned to be brush factory manager in Dalkeith, Midlothian, pub. The Green Glens of Lothian, and other poems and songs (Edinburgh, 1871). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 281; Edwards, 2 (1881), 30-33 . [S]

Loker, Timothy, of Cambridge, humble circumstances, largely self-taught, under-butler at St. John’s College, pub. Poems and ballads (Cambridge, 1861, 2nd enlarged edn. 1865)   Ref Reilly (2000), p. 281.

Longstaff, William (b. 1849), of Soulby, Westmorland, labourer, worked on farm and railway, finally a signalman, pub. Her Majesty’s royal jubilee, 1887: ode and song, the tribute of a working man (Newcastle upon Tyne, 1887). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 287.

? Lonsdale, Mark, Cumberland poet, dialect poems included in Ballads in the Cumberland Dialect Chiefly by Robert Anderson (Wigton, 1808). Ref information of Michael Baron, 2000, Johnson, item 18.

Lott, Henry F., carpenter, author of One Hundred Sonnets (1850). Ref Maidment (1987), pp. 214-16, Goodridge (1999), item 67.

Love, David (1750-1827), pedlar poet; also worked as a miner; published single sheets and chapbooks; settled in Nottingham and most of his books were published from there, pub. A New and Correct Set of Godly Poems (1782), David Love’s Journey to London and his Return to Nottingham (1800), The Life, Adventures, and Experiences of David Love (Nottingham, 1823-4). [LC 3 headnote only]

Lovett, William, artisan, member of the London Workingmen’s Association, author of an autobiograhy, some international Addresses, and a poem ‘worth reading’, Woman. Red Ashraf (1978), I, p. 24.

Lowe, John (1750-1798), gardener’s son, apprentice weaver, tutor, see Remains of Nithsdale and Galloway Song, ed. by R. H. Cromek (1810), Ref DNB (Johnson, item 555 poss. relates). [S]

? Lowery, Robert, seaman, tailor, Chartist poet and activist. Ref Scheckner, pp. 257, 340.

Lucas, John (fl. 1776-81, shoemaker poet, author of Miscellanies in verse and prose (Salisbury, 1776, BL 1162.d.20), The Fall of Pharaoh and Philo’s Apology (1781). Ref Ashraf (1978), I, pp. 31-2; Klaus (1985), 7-8, 16-17, Harvey, ESTC, Christmas, pp. 210-12, 220-3. [LC 2]

Lumsden, James (‘Samuel Mucklebackit’) (1839-1903), of Abbey Mill, Haddington, East Lothian, variously apprentice grocer, millworker, itinerant, farmer, working in the potato trade, journalist, pub. six volumes in the 1880s and 1890s, including Sheep-head and trotters: being savoury selections, poetic and prosaic, from the bulky literary remains of Samuel Mucklebackit and Thomas Pintail, late Parnassian hill and arable farmers in Lothian (Edinburgh, 1892). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 291. [S]

Lyall, John Wallace (b. 1836), of Paisley, weaver’s son, sailor, iron planer, pub. poems in newspapers, Sun-Gleams Through the Mist of Toil: Poems, Songs, Dialogues, Recitations, and Sacred Verses (Brechin and Edinburgh, 1885), pub. temperance text Jack Bentley’s First and Last Glass (1888). Ref Brown, Reilly (1994), p. 292. [S]

Lyle, William (b, 1822), of Edinburgh, emigrated to Rochester, New York, apprentice potter, manager of the Rochester Sewer Pipe Company, pub. poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 6 (1883), pp. 28-35. [S]

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Mabon, Agnes Stuart (b. 1841), of Lochtower Farm, Yethom, Roxburghshire, daughter of a farm overseer, millworker at Jedburgh, author of Homely rhymes, etc. from the banks of the Jed (Paisley, Edinburgh and Jedburgh, 1887). Ref Edwards, 9 (1886), pp. 207-13; Boos (1995), 68, Reilly (1994), p. 295. [S] [F] [LC 6]

M’Anally, Henry, of Castledawson, Londonderry, Irish patriot, shipbuilder in Dumbarton and Partick, later worked for the railway company in Chicago, pub. Effusions after toil: a collection of poems and lyrics (Glasgow, 1884). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 295. [I]

Macansh, Alexander  (b. 1803), of Dunfermline, flax-dresser, self-educated, wrote for Scottish literary periodicals, pub. Social curse; or, Intemperance, a rhyme; and other pieces (1850), A working-man’s bye-hours: consisting of essays, lectures, poems, etc. (Dunfermline, 1866), also co-author of a prose work: Two essays on the benefits of savings’ banks to the working-classes by Messrs. Macansh and Cousin, etc. (1852)  Ref Reilly (2000), pp. 287-8, National Library of Scotland. [S] [LC 5]

M’Arthur, Peter (1805-81), of Barrhead, Renfrewshire, calico printer, pattern designer promoted to department head in Glasgow, pub. Amusements in minstrelsy (Glasgow, 1880). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 296, Murdoch, pp. 156-64; Edwards 1 (1880) and 8 (1886), p. xxv. [S]

Macaulay, John (b. 1854), of Port-Glasgow, from a poverty-stricken family, blacksmith, pub. in Glasgow Weekly Mail, and pub. Poems and songs (Greenock, 1895). Ref Edwards, 9 (1886), pp. 340-5; Reilly (1994), p. 296. [S]

? M’Auslane, William Thomson (1832-93), of Glasgow, attended a village school and evening classes, clerk and book-keeper, journalist, pub. Summer musings; and, Memories dear (Glasgow, 1889). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 296, Edwards, 2 (1881), pp. 135-9. [S]

? MacCodrum, John (1693?-1779), Gaelic bard, son of a peasant. [S]

? M’Coll or MacColl, Evan (‘Clarsair nam Beann’), of Kenmoor, Lochfyneside, Highland fisherman and farmer, (self styled ‘Highland Peasant’, Gaelic poet, pub. The Mountain Minstrel; or Poems and Songs (Glasgow, 1836, also pub. in Gaelic; Edinburgh, Glasgow and London, 1838, new edition 1846), includes ‘On the Abolition of Slavery in the British West India Colonies’, and ‘Stanzas on Viewing “The Rejoicings” in a Highland Glen, Occasioned by the Passing of the Reform Bill’. Ref Wilson, II, pp. 303-8, Johnson, items 561-2. [S] [LC 5]

M’Crackett, or M’Craket, Peter (1827-82), of Greenlaw, Berwickshire, Lammermoor shepherd or ‘herd laddie’, draper, teacher, pub. poems in newspapers and three poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 2 (1881), pp. 340-5; Edwards, 9 (1886), p. xvii; Crockett, pp. 187-9. [S]

M’Culloch, James Sloane (b. 1885), of Burnfoot, Carsphairn, Galloway, stonedyker with his father and brothers, pub. Poems: local, lyrical, and miscellaneous (Edinburgh, 1885). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 298. [S]

M’Donald, Agnes, of Glasgow, blacksmith’s daughter, orphaned, minimum education, wrote for papers including Glasgow Mail, pub. Features of our river, and other poems (Glasgow, 1870). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 290. [S] [F]

MacDonald, Christian (b. 1868), of Callendar, Perthshire, orphaned, machinist in Glasgow, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 14 (1891), pp. 321-4. [S] [F]

MacDonald, Hugh (1817-60), of Glasgow then Paisley, born in humble circumstances, printer and journalist, pub. Poems and Songs with A Memoir of the Author (Glasgow, 1863), Poetical works (1865). Ref Wilson, II, pp. 398-402, Leonard, pp. 215-18, Reilly (2000), p. 290, Murdoch, pp. 132-8. [S]

? McDonagh, Michael (1822-93), of Grencastle, County Donegal, printer and compositor on the Limerick Reporter, pub. Lays of Erin, and other poems (Limerick, 1882). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 299. [I]

Macdougall, Allen (1750-1829), apprenticed to tailor; poems written in Scottish Gaelic. [S]

M’Ewen, Tom (b. 1846), of Busby, near Glasgow, calico printr}s ‘tearer’, pattrn designer, painter and poet. Ref Edwards, 12 (1889), pp. 326-36. [S]

MacFadyen, Dugald (b. 1857), of Maryhill, Glasgow, of Irish roots, draper, songwriter, pub. Songs from the city (London, Edinburgh and Dublin, 1887). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 301. [S] [I]

Macfarlan, James (1832-62), weaver’s son, pedlar, walked from Glasgow to London to publish a volume of lyrics (1853), contributed to Household Words; other pubs include Poems (1854), Lyrics of Life (1856); Poems contributed to All the year round (Glasgow, ?1870); Poetical Works (1882). Ref Wilson, II, pp. 482-5, DNB, CBEL III, 347, Reilly (2000), p. 291; Murdoch, pp. 248-54. [S] [LC 5]

M’Farlane, Samuel (b. c. 1831), of Auchtergaven, Perthshire, small farmer, botanist, pub. poems in newspapers and in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 6 (1883), pp. 394-6. [S]

? McGilvray, Alexander, (1800-71), of Paisley, ‘The Rhyming Baker’, town councillor, wrote squibs, pub. The Town’s House on the Market Day, A Poem in Two Cantos (Paisley, 1840), Poems and Songs Satirical and Descriptive, Bearing on the Political, Moral and Religious Character of Man (Glasgow, 1850). Ref Brown, Leonard, pp. 166-75, Reilly (2000), p. 291. [S]

McGonagall, William (1830-1902), of Edinburgh, son of an Irish cotton weaver, handloom weaver in Dundee, amateur Shakespearian actor, gave public readings of his verse, pub. Poetic gems, selected from the works of William McGonagall (Dundee, 1890; second series, 1891); numerous reprints and selections from 1890 to the present day. Ref Reilly (1994), p. 302. [S] [LC 6]

McGregor, James, (b. 1858), of Perth, son of the poet John M’Gregor (b. 1827), shoemaker, policeman, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 14 (1891), pp. 152-6. [S]

? McGregor, Jane, perfumer of Port Glasgow, pub. Redeeming love, and other poems (Edinburgh, 1862). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 291. [S] [F]

McGregor, John (1790?-1870), of Paisley, embroiderer. Ref Brown. [S]

M’Gregor, John (b. 1827), of Perth, handloom weaver, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 14 (1891), pp. 149-52. [S]

MacIndoe, George, (1771-1848), of Paisley, silk weaver, later hotel keeper and publican in Glasgow, pub. Poems and Songs, chiefly in the Scottish dialect (1805), The Wandering Muse, A Miscellany of Original Poetry (Paisley, 1813). Ref Brown, Leonard, pp. 55-6. [S]

M’Intosh, David (b. 1846), of Hillside, Montrose, mechanic, emigrated to America, pub. in People’s Journal, 1 poem in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 2 (1881), pp. 329-31. [S]

? M’Intosh, William Stevenson (b. 1838), of Edinburgh, apprentice jeweller, pub in Edwards. Ref Edwards 9 (1886), pp. 69-72. [S]

McIntyre, Duncan Ban (1724-1812), Gaelic poet, forester and soldier for the Earl of Breadalbane, author of Moladh Beinn Dóbhrain (Praise of Ben Dorain); poems first pub. in Edinburgh, 1768. Ref Wilson, I, pp. 227-32, Douglas Mack, ‘James Hogg, John Clare, and Duncan Ban Macintyre: Three British “Peasant Poets”?’, John Clare Society Journal, 22 (2003). [S]

McIntyre, John (1811-72), of Paisley, warper, pub. Favourite Songs (1850), The Emigrants Hope: a collection of Articles in prose and verse, together with a number of original pieces contributed by literary and poetical acquaintances—men of ability and talent—whose names have been before the public these many years (1854). Ref Brown. [S]

? Mackay, Alexander, butler at Myhall, pub. Original songs and poems, English and Gaelic (Inverness, 1821). Ref Johnson, item 572. [S]

McKay, Archibald (1801-83), Scottish poet apprenticed to a weaver, pub. a satirical poem, Drouthy Tam (1828), and Ingleside Lilts (dnk). Ref Edwards, 2 and Edwards, 9 (1886), p. xvi; Murdoch, pp. 29-33 [S]

Mackay, Robert (1714-1778), Gaelic bard, unlettered drover, oral poet and folklorist. Ref Wilson, I, pp. 180-3. [S]

MacKarsie, William (b. 1821), of Falkland, molecatcher, farmer, pub. Hamely Rhymes on Hamely Subjects (Cupar-Fife, 1886). Ref Edwards, 14 (1891), pp. 253-8. [S]

M’Kean, Hugh (b. 1869), of Boquhan, Killearn, Stirlingshire, baker’s son, joiner, pub poems in the newspaper and in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 14 (1891), pp. 324-6. [S]

McKenzie, William, quarrier of Carmyllie, Angus, pub. A collection of songs & poems (1871). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 293. [S]

McLachlan, Alexander (1818-96), of Johnstone, worked in cotton factory, apprentice tailor, emigrated to Canada (‘The Burns of Canada’), farmer, pub. Poems, chiefly in the Scottish dialect (1855), Lyrics (1858), The Emigrant (1861), The Poetical Works of Alexander McLachlan (Toronto, 1900). Ref Wilson, II, pp. 403-6, Leonard, pp. 236-8, Edwards, 2 (1881), pp. 258-65. [S]

? M’Lachlan, Kenneth (1815-85), of Greenock, Renfrewshire, son of a soldier and shoemaker, calico block-printer, policeman, went deaf, ran a drapery business, pub. The progress of the sciences: a poem (Glasgow and Greenock, 1860), Scenes of the city by night: a poem in six cantos (Glasgow, Edinburgh and London, 1863), Hope’s happy home, and other poems (1869), Beauties of Scotland, and other pieces, with historical notes (London, 1872). Ref Edwards, 9 (1886), p. xviii; Reilly (2000), p. 294, Murdoch, pp. 173-80. [S]

? MacLagan, Alexander (1811-79), of Perth, farmer’s son, plumber, lived in Edinbugh and London, pub. first vol of poems in 1841, second in 1850, third, Ragged and Industrial School Rhymes, in 1854, received a civil list pension, and went on to write patriotic and military verses: Volunteer songs (1863), Balmoral: lays of the highlands, and other poems (1871), Ragged school rhymes (1871), National songs and ballads (1878). Ref Wilson, II, pp. 341-7, Reilly (2000), p. 294, Murdoch, pp. 147-50. [S]

McLardy, James (b. 1824), of Glasgow, learned to be shoemaker like his father, involved in founding boot and shoe factories, later emigrated to US, individual works never collected or published separately but some appeared in Paisley Literary Miscellany. Ref Brown. [S]

M’Laren, John Wilson (b. 1861), of Grassmarket, Edinburgh (‘The Laddie Bard’), seaman’s son, orphan, messenger, bootmaker, newsagent, compositor, pub. Rhymes frae the chimla-lug (Edinburgh, 1881); Scots poems and ballants (Edinburgh, 1892). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 308, Edwards, 2 (1881), pp. 346-9. [S]

McLaren, William (1772-1832), of Paisley, poet and weaver, acquainted with Tannahill, whom he helped to publish, pub. ‘Address delivered at the celebration of the birth of Burns, at the first general meeting of the Paisley Burns Anniversary Society’ (1815), Emma, or the Cruel Father: A Poetical Tale, with other Poems and Songs (1817), Isabella, or the Robbers: a Poetical Tale of the Olden Times, and other Poems (1827), many periodical publications. Ref Brown. [S]

M’Lay, John, of Airdrie, collier, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 12 (1889), pp. 388-92. [S]

M’Lean, Andrew (b. 1848), of Renton, Dumbartonshire, apprentice joiner, worked his passage across the Atlantic, joined the US Navy, served in the Civil War, Managing Editor of the Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Ref Edwards, 6 (1883), pp. 135-9. [S]

MacLean, Hugh Archibald, engineer, postal worker. Ref Edwards 10 (1887), pp. 84-7. [S]

McLennan, Anne (1840-83), of Resolis, Ross & Cromarty, domestic servant, ‘Bible-woman’, pub. Poems, sacred and secular (Edinburgh, 1884). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 308. [S] [F]

M’Lintoch, Agnes C.  (d. 1878), of Gourock or Greenock, Renfrewshire, servant at Glasgow, lived in humble circumstances, died of TB, pub. The broken plough, and other poems (Glasgow and Edinburgh, 1877). Ref Edwards, 13 (1890), pp. 338-9; Reilly (2000), p. 295. [S] [F]

McManus, Cornelius (b. 1863), of Brindle, Lancs, working man, author of ‘John Barleycorn’s Diary’ and other poems and stories. Ref Hull, pp. 424-9, Maidment (1987), pp. 179-80.

McMillan, Daniel (b. 1846), of Dalintobel, Campbelltown, Argyllshire, herder, ironmonger, manufacturer. Ref Edwards, 14 (1891), pp. 300-5; Murdoch, pp. 282-5. [S]

M’Murdo, George (b. 1843), of Muirkirk, Ayrshire, coalminer, pub. Poems and miscellaneous pieces (Ardrossan, 1882). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 309. [S]

M’Neil or McNeil, Duncan McFarlane (b. 1830), of Paisley, weaver’s drawboy, baker, pub. ‘When I was a Drawboy’ and other poems in his The Reformed Drunkard or the Adventure on the Muir with Other Poems and Songs (Paisley, 1860, Glasgow, 1899). Ref   Edwards, 6 (1883), pp. 318-21; Brown, Leonard, pp. 219-23, Reilly (2000), p. 296. [S]

M’Neill, Kate (b. 1858), of Houston, Renfrewshire, daughter of a working man; mother an invalid, religious poet, poems io Edwards. Ref  Edwards, 6 (1883), pp. 228-32. [S] [F]

M’Neill, Peter (b. 1839), of Tranent, East Lothian, coal miner from age nine, evening school, post messenger, bookseller, pub. The Battle of Preston; Gaffer Gray: or, Knox and his times, and other poems and songs (Tranent and Edinburgh, ?1878). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 296. [S]

MacNicol, Duncan (b. 1851), of Luss, Dunbartonshire, teacher, gardener, handyman, settled on Rothesay as a cabman, pub. Bute, and other poems (Glasgow, 1897), Glen fruin, and other poems (Rothesay, 1885). Ref Edwards, 3 (1881), pp. 279-82; Reilly (1994), p. 310. [S]

MacPherson, Colin (b. 1826), of Keith, Banffshire, herder, shoemaker, packman, potato merchant, pub. The farmer’s friend: the errors in the present method of rearing and breeding of cattle exposed, the causes of disease and plagues in cattle traced to the injurious system of gross stall feeding, and inadequate housing and breeding from too young and unmatured stock, spurious manures, their baneful effects on cattle, crops, and soil, &c (Dundee, 1878) [this is a book of poems, but he also wrote prose articles on diseases in potato, described by Reilly as ‘useful’]. Ref Edwards, 3 (1881), 33-6, Reilly (2000), p. 297. [S]

MacPherson, Daniel (c. 1810-86) , of Alvie, Badenoch, servant, police officer in Edinburgh, colliery engineer on Tyneside, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 10 (1887), pp. 26-331. [S]

MacPherson, Rachel (b. 1861), of Huntly, milliner, pub. in Aberdeenshire newspapers, 1 poem in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 2 (1881), pp. 203-5. [S] [F]

McPherson, William (b. 1842), of Paisley, farm labourer, joiner, ship’s carpenter, pub. pieces in newspapers. Ref Brown. [S]

M’Queen, James (b. c. 1862), of Edinkillie, Moray, cartwright’s son and miller’s grandson, uneducated outworker, music tutor and musician, pub. Beauties of Morayland and other poems and songs (Elgin, 1888), and poems in Edwards, 13 (1890), pp. 45-9. [S]

MacQueen, Thomas, journeyman mason of Bakip, pub. Poems and songs (Glasgow, 1826); My gloaming amusements, a variety of poems (Beith, 1831); The Exile, a Poem in seven books (Glasgow, 1836). Ref Johnson, items 576-8. [Note: Edwards, 2 (1881), pp. 323-5 includes a ‘Thomas M’Queen’ who d. in 1861, having emigrated to Canada and published 3 vols from 1836-1850; possibly the same poet; and Ashraf, I, p. 35, mentions ‘Thomas MacQueen’s Moorland Minstrel’ [Glasgow, 1840] [S]

M’Vittie, James (b. 1833), of Langhorn, Dumfriesshire, crofter-shepherd’s son, cotton weaver, wool spinner, revivalist and temperance reformer, pub. In memoriam, and songs of cheer from the cradle to the grave (Glasgow, 1893). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 310. [S]

M’Whirter, David, of the Isle of Whithorn, Wigtownshire, pub. A ploughboy”s musings: being a selection of English and humorous Scotch poems (Whithorn, 1883). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 310. [S]

Magill, Patrick (b. 1891), of Glenties, Donegal, farmhand, moved to Scotland, worked as ‘farmhand, drainer, tramp, hammerman, navvy, plate-layer and wrestler’, pub. Gleanings from a Navvy’s Scrapbook which sold 8,000 copies, Soldier Songs (London, 1917), Songs of the Dead End (London, 1920). Ref Leonard, pp. 360-6. [I] [S] [OP]

Mailing, Edith, of a poor family, father taught her to read, m. at 17, two children d., pub. Poems, with a sketch of her life, in her own words (London, 1875). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 299, BL. [F]

? Malins, Joseph (1844-1926), of Worcester, apprentice decorative painter, temperance advocate, pub. Professor Alcoholico: a temperance poem (Birmingham, 1876), Popular temperance recitations (Maidstone, 1890). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 312, Reilly (2000), pp. 299-300.

? Mallet, Josiah Reddie, of Harlyn Bay, pub. A life’s history, told in homely verse, and miscellaneous poems (London, 1895). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 312.

? Mangan, Clarence (1803-49), Irish poet, lawyer’s clerk. Ref Ashraf (1975), pp. 210-13, Scheckner, p. 264, Miles, III, p. 453, Ricks, pp. 94-6, EPFTD. [I]

Manson, James (1792-1863), clothier, journalist, violincellist, blind in later life, pub. Lyrics & ballads (Glasgow, 1863). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 300. [S]

? Marshall, Charles (1795-1882), of Paisley, shoemaker poet, later a minister in Dunfermline, pub. Lays and Lectures for Scotia’s Daughters of Industry (Edinburgh, 1853), Homely Words and Songs for Working Men and Women (Edinburgh, 1856), The watchman’s round, in the way of life, and the way of death (Edinburgh, 1868). Ref Edwards, 9 (1886), p. xvi; Leonard, pp. 199-202. [S]

Marshall, James (b. 1829), of Burrelton, Cargill, Perthshire, nurseryman and seedsman, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 10 (1887), pp. 163-7. [S]

Marshall, Thomas, of Newcastle upon Tyne, brush-maker, songwriter, pub. a collection in 1829. Ref Allan, pp. 250-6.

? Martin, Tobias (1747-1828), Cornish miner and mine agent, pub. The remains of the late Tobias Martin of Breage, in Cornwall, mine agent (Helston, 1831). Ref Johnson, item 592.

? Martin, William (1772 –1851), natural philosopher and poet; worked as ropemaker and served in militia; 151 entries in NCSTC; Harlequin’s Invasion (1811); A new philosophical song or Poem book, called the Northumberland Bard (1827).

Massey, Gerald (1828-1907), of Gamble Wharf, Tring, Hertfordshire, son of a canal boatman, straw-plaiter and errand boy, later a Chartist and popular lecturer, author of Poems and Chansons (1848); Voices of Freedom and Lyrics of Love! (1850, 1851); The Ballad of Babe Christabel, with other Lyrical Poems (1854); Poems and Ballads by Gerald Massey, containing the Ballad of Babe Christabel (1855); Complete Poetical Works (Boston, 1857); My lyrical life: poems old and new (London, 1889, various editions and series); may have written Chartist poetry under the Pseudonym ‘Bandiera’ (Sheckner, pp. 116-18, 330). Ref David Shaw, Gerald Massey: Chartist, Poet, Radical and Freethinker (Buckland, 1955); NCBEL III, p. 538, Vicinus (1974), pp. 102-7, Cross, pp. 128, 156-61, Maidment (1983), 79, Maidment (1987), pp. 55-6, 167-9, 201-3, 312-14, Kovalev, pp. 202-9, Scheckner, pp. 265-84, 340-1, Zlotnick, p. 175; Reilly (1994), p. 318, EPFTD, Miles, V, p. 315, Ricks, pp. 560-1, Reilly (2000), pp. 305-6. [LC 5]

Massie, Joseph C (1868-88), of Forfar, factory worker in the textile industry, pub. as ‘Adonais’ and ‘The Factory Boy’, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards 9 (1886), pp. 55-9 and 12 (1889), p. x. [S]

Masters, Mary (c. 1706-c. 1759). Ref Rowton, pp. 139-40, Christmas, p. 31. [LC 1] [F]

Mather, Joseph (1737-1804), filesmith who ‘could neither read nor write’, pub. A Collection of Songs, Poems, Satires, &c. (Sheffield, 1811), Songs, ed. by J. Wilson (Sheffield, 1862), with a useful ‘Memoir’. Ref Armitage, W.H.G., ‘Joseph Mather: poet of the filesmiths’, Notes & Queries, 22 (July 1950), Vicinus (1969), 22-3, NCBEL II; Lonsdale (1984), pp. 788-91, 855n, Hobday, EPFTD.

Matthews, Alfred T (b. c. 1860), of Broughton-Ferry, painter, bleacher’s son, worked in a warping mill, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 13 (1890), pp. 270-8. [S]

Mauchline, James (b. 1817), of Gifford Park, Edinburgh, soldier poet, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 14 (1891), pp. 318-20 [S]

Maxwell, Alexander (b. 1791), of Dundee,  cow herder, joiner, works manager, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 10 (1887), pp. 402-6. [S]

Maxwell, Gavin (fl. 1789). [LC 3] [S]

Maxwell, James (1720-1800), Paisley weaver and poet, has a total of 46 ESTC entries, pubs. include Divine Miscellanies; or Sacred Poems (1756/7); Hymns and Spiritual Songs (1759), Animadversions on Some Poets and Poetasters of the Present Age (1788); The Divine Origin of Poetry Asserted and Proved, The Abuse of it Reproved, and Poetasters Threatened. To Which is Added a Meditation on May, or, The Brief History of a Modern Poet . Two Moral Essays (Paisley, 1790); A Brief Narrative; or Some Remarks on the Life of James Maxwell, Poet, in Paisley. Written by himself (1795). Ref Brown, Leonard, pp. 1-4. [LC 2] [S]

Maybee, Robert (1810-91, Sixty-eight Years’ Experience on the Scilly Islands (Penzance, 1884). Ref Wright, pp. 327-8, Ashton & Roberts, ch. 5, pp. 65-69, Vincent, p. 207. [LC 6]

? Mead, Edward P. (‘Commodore’), of Birmingham, popular Chartist lecturer and poet, author of ‘The Steam King’ (Northern Star, 11 February 1843). Ref Ashraf (1978), I. pp. 42-3; Kovalev, pp. 91-5, Maidment (1987), pp. 41-2, Scheckner, pp. 287-91, 341.

Meek, Robert (b. 1836), of Leith, message boy, public weigher, poems in Edwards. Ref  Edwards, 6 (1883), pp. 209-13. [S]

? Mellor, John William, Lancashire dialect poet, pub. Stories and Rhymes (Manchester, 1869). Ref Reilly (2000), pp. 309-10.

Mennon, Robert (1797-1885), of Ayton, Berwickshire, slater, plasterer and glazier, later lived in London, pub. Poems: moral and religious (Edinburgh, ?1860, ?1885). Ref Edwards, 3 (1881), pp. 130-6; Edwards, 9 (1886), p. xv; Crockett, pp. 133-6; Reilly (1994), p. 322, Reilly (2000), p. 310. [S]

Menzies, John (b. 16 July 1811), of Airntully, Kingclaven, ploughman, soldier, pub. Reminiscences of an Old Soldier. Ref Edwards, 12 (1889), pp. 370-8. [S]

Mercer, George, of Liverpool, labouring-class, poor education, unable to work due to rheumatism,  pub. Will Barton o’ the Mill, and other poems (London, 1860). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 311.

? Merry, J., of Molton, Northants, miller, pub. Miscellaneous pieces; in verse (Bedford: C.B. Merry, 1823), wrote to Clare; may also have had posthumous ‘Remains’ published in Bedford in 1820s. See Trevor Hold, A Northamptonshire Garland. Ref inf Bob Heyes, Johnson, item 604.

? Messing, Stephen, of Rutland, poet of humble origins, pub. Rural Walks (1819), Poems on Various Subjects (1821). Ref Crossan, 37, Powell, item 300.

? Meyler, William (d. 1821), printer, pub. Poetical amusement on the journey of life... (Bath, 1806); this vol. contains an epilogue to Yearsley’s Earl Godwin. Ref Johnson, item 607.

Miller, Hugh, the Elder (1802-56), stonemason, later a distinguished geologist, pub. Poems written in the leisure hours of a journeyman mason (Inverness: R. Carruthers, 1829). Ref Edwards, 3 (1881), pp. 312-18; Wilson, II, pp. 250-4, NCSTC (58 entries), Johnson, item 610, DNB, Peter Bayne, The Life and Letters of Hugh Miller (2 vols, 1871). [S]

Miller, Thomas (1807-74), of Gainsborough, later Nottingham, basket-maker poet, pub. Elegy on the Death of Lord Byron’s Mary (London and Nottingham, nd, c. 1832), A Day in the Woods: A Connected Series of Tales and Poems (1836); Poems (1841), and many other vols. Ref Cross, pp. 127, 133-41, James, p. 171, Maidment (1987), pp. 141-43, Ashton & Roberts, ch. 2, pp. 32-45, Johnson, item 611, EPFTD, Miles, X, p. xiv, Burmester, item 370. [LC 5]

Miller, Thomas (b. 1831), of Dunse, Berwickshire, herder, printer, lyricist and successful song-writer. Ref Crockett, pp. 248-9; Murdoch, pp. 245-8. [S]

Miller, William (1810-72), of Glasgow, woodturner, popular children’s poet, ‘The Laureate of the Nursery’, author of ‘Wee Willie Winkie’, pub. Scottish Nursery Rhymes and Other Songs (1863). Ref Edwards, 3 (1881), pp. 142-7; Wilson, II, pp. 334-40, Douglas, p. 310, Ricks, p. 98, EPFTD, Murdoch, pp. 33-8. [S] [LC 6]

Millhouse, Robert (1788-1839), weaver, The Destinies of Man (London, 1832); Sherwood Forest and other poems (London, 1827); Vicissitude (Nottingham, 1821). Ref James, pp. 171-3, Johnson, items 612-16, 738, Harvey. [LC 4]

Mills, Thomas, pub. The Unlettered Muse (Hoxton: printed for the author by F. Nicholls, 1830). Ref inf Scott McEathron.

? Milne, Alexander (b. 1869), of Aberdeen, of a working-class family, clerk, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 14 (1891), pp. 141-3. [S]

? Milne, Christian (1773-after 1816), wife of journeyman ship-carpenter, of Footdee, Aberdeen, Simple Poems on Simple Subjects (Aberdeen, 1805). Ref Johnson, item 619, Jackson, p. 219. [S] [F]

Milne, John (1792-1871), of Dunottar, Kincardineshire, orphaned son of a seaman, shoemaker at Glenlivat, Banffshire, pub. The widow and her son (1830) and other vols; Selections from the songs and poems of the late John Milne (Aberdeen, 1871).   Ref Reilly (2000), p. 315, Edwards, 2 (1881), p. 362-7. [S]

? Mitchell, Alexander (b. 1804) of Earlston, Berwickshire, self-taught businessman, founded and chaired Dalkeith Scientific Association, pub. The English Lakes: an excursion (Edinburgh, 1862; further edns with ‘other poems’ 1873 and 1888). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 317. [S]

? Mitchell, Alexander, ‘The Bridge of Dee Poet’, pub. Musings in verse, and a sketch of the author’s life, by George Mitchell, together with, Select poems, by Alexander Mitchell, the Bridge of Dee poet, 2nd edn (Aberdeen, 1869).  Ref Reilly (2000), p. 317. [S]

Mitchell, John (1786-1856), of Paisley, shoemaker, pub. A Night on the Banks of the Doon, and other poems (Paisley 1838), The Third Class Train, Respectfully Inscribed to the Weavers of Paisley by a Third Class Man (Paisley, 1840), The Wee Steeple’s Ghaist, and other Poems and Songs (1840), A Braid Glower at the Clergy by Ane not o’ Themsel’s (Glasgow, 1843), One Hundred Original Songs (1845), Cautious Tam or How to Look a Foe in the Face (Paisley, 1847), My Grey Goose Quill, and other Poems and Songs (1852), also wrote ‘Nick’s Tour, or the Cobbler Triumphant’, ‘Lines on the Celebration of Thomas Paine’s Birthday’. Ref Johnson, item 622, Brown, Leonard, pp. 124-56, 371. [S] [LC 5]

Mitford, William (1788-51), of Preston, North Shields, orphan, shoemaker, publican, songwriter. Ref Allan, pp. 132-6.

Montgomery, James (1771-1854), of Ayrshire and Ulster, settled in Sheffield, poet, also worked as baker, radical editor, acquaintance of Bloomfield and Clare; 112 NCSTC entries; The West Indies and Other Poems (1810); The World Before the Flood (1812); Greenland (1819); The Pelican Island (1826). Ref Howitt, pp. 556-77, Wilson, I, pp 485-98, Cross, 142, James, p. 171, Johnson, items 49, 115, 149, 451, 470, 608, 626, 637, 738, 748, 766, 937, Goodridge (1999), item 78, DNB, EPFTD, Miles, X, 1, Powell, item 153, Jarndyce. items 1446-57. [S] [I]

? Montgomery, John Wilson (?1835-1911) ‘The Sweet Bard of Bailieborough’, of Billis, County Cavan, farmer’s son, police officer, master of the Bailieborough workhouse, County Cavan, pub. Rhymes Ulidian (Downpatrick, 1877),  Fireside Lyrics (Downpatrick, 1887). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 332,  Reilly (2000), pp. 320-1. [I]

Mooney, John (b. 1862), from a fmily of itinerant rag-gatherers, agricultural clerk, pub. Songs of the Norse, and other poems (Kirkwall, 1883). Ref Edwards, 10 (1887), pp. 135-9. [S]

Moor, T., shoemaker of Denton Chare, Newcastle, upon Tyne, singer and songwriter, wrote ‘the Skipper’s Dream’. Ref Allan, pp. 312-13.

? Moorcock, Rachel (1829-70), of Lane End, Bucks., attended Methodist Sunday school, suffered from poor health, pub. Memoirs of Joseph, Sarah and Rachel Moorcock, by Benjamin North, with the poetical works of Rachel Moorcock (London, 1872).  Ref Reilly (2000), p. 317. [F]

? Moore, Dugald (1805-41), of Glasgow, of humble parentage, apprenticed to a stationer, became a bookseller, pub. The African, and Other Poems (1829), and five further volumes of poetry. Ref Wilson, II, pp. 267-9. [S]

? Moore, Jane Elizabeth (b. 1738), a clerk in her father’s business, involved with freemasons. Ref Carpenter, p. 530. [F]

? Moorhouse, William Vincent, The thrasher [i.e. thresher] and other poems (Wellington, Shropshire, 1828), published by subscription for the benefit of the author who, aged twenty, lost his left hand by the ‘bursting of a gun’. Johnson, item 634, Jarndyce, item 1460 and p. 1460 (image).

? Morgan, John, author of A Poem on the Taylor Craft (Scotland, 1733. ). Ref Foxon, M445. [S]

Joseph (b. 1838), of Londonderry, Scotish parentage, joiner in Glasgow, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards 9 (1886), pp. 45-8. [S] [I]

? Morris, Andrew, ‘Amos’, (b. 1842), of Shott’s Iron Works, West Lothian. miner’s son, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 12 (1889), pp. 401-5. [S]

Morris, Eliza Fanny (1821-74), of east London, tailor’s daughter, m. a schoolmaster, lived in Oxford and Malvern, pub. Life lyrics (London and Worcester, 1866), Life and poems, written and edited by her husband (London and Malvern, 1876). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 324. [F]

Morrison, David H. (b. 1824),  of Airdrie, Lanarkshire, weaver from age ten, miner from age fifteen, late worked in a paper mill, pub Poems and songs (Airdrie, 1870), Ref Reilly (2000), p. 325. [S]

? Morrison, James (b. c. 1800), of Newcastle upon Tyne, painter (nephew of the eminent self-taught missionary and scholar Dr Morrison) and songwriter, author of ‘The Newcastle Noodles’ and ‘Burdon’s Address’, moved to Edinburgh in 1830. Ref Allan, pp. 198-202.

? Morton, Jessie D.M. (b. 1842), of Dalkeith, Midlothian, shopkeeper, pub. Clarkson Gray, and other poems (Edinburgh, 1866, 2nd edn London, Edinburgh and Glasgow, 1867). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 326, Murdoch, pp. 337-43. [Murdoch gives birthdate as about 1825] [S] [F]

Morton, Thomas (b. 1861), of Edinburgh, gardener, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 12 (1889), pp. 105-10. [S]

M’Owen, J., of Sheffield, Chartist poet, pub. ‘only a few poems in The Northern Star’. Ref Kovalev, p. 115, Scheckner, pp. 292, 341.

Mowat, George Houston (b. 1846), of Fraserburgh, Aberdeenshire, tailor, poet and songwriter, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 14 (1891), pp. 110-16. [S]

Muir, Hugh (b. 1846), of Edinburgh, coalminer, bobbin-turner, musician, pub. Hamely echoes from an auld town [poems] (Glasgow, 1899); Reminiscences and sketches: being a topographical history of Rutherglen and suburbs (Glasgow, 1890). Ref Edwards, 10 (1887), pp. 174-9; Reilly (1994), p. 341. [S]

Muir, Janet Kelso (?1840-88), of Glasgow, orphaned, worked in a milliner’s shop, later in business, pub. Lyrics and poems of nature and life (Paisley and London, 1878). Note: there is an advert for this in the back of Agnes Mabon’s volume (qv). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 329, Edwards, 2 (1881), pp. 381-4 and 12 (1889), pp. xx-xxi. [S] [F]

Muir, William (1766-1817), journeyman saddler, pub. Poems on Various Subjects (Edinburgh, 1818), died in a fall; monument raised  at the churchyard at Clachan of Campsie. Ref Johnson, item 641, Edwards, 2 (1881), pp. 49-51. [S]

Murdoch, Alexander G. (1841 or 1843-91), of Glasgow, ‘by trade a working engineer...the disadvantage of a scanty education’ (Wilson), later a full-time writer, pub. Lilts in the Doric Lyre: a collection of humorous poems and versified sketches of Scottish manners and character (1872), The laird’s lykewake, and other poems, with an introductory preface by George Gilfillan (London, 1877); The Scottish Poets Recent and Living (Glasgow And London, 1883). Ref Wilson, II, pp. 532-3, Reilly (2000), p. 330; Murdoch. [S]

Murdoch, James (b. 1806), of Elgin, Morayshire, son of a butcher and a servant, herder, packman, itinerant cutler and poet, pub. The Autobiography and Poems of James Murdoch, known as ‘Cutler Jamie’ (Elgin, 1863). Ref Vincent, pp. 199, 207, Reilly (2000), pp. 330-1. [S]

Murdoch, William (b. 1822 or 1823), of Paisley, son of a shoemaker, trained as one and went to night school, started writing poems aged 16, active member of Literary and Convivial Association, ‘whose weekly meetings were attended by local versifiers, debaters, humorists, and other literati, all belonging to the well-to-do working classes. William Murdoch’s place of business became a rendez-vous of many gifted men like himself.’ Pieces appeared in local newspapers and were signed under name of ‘Chodrum’ (his name reversed), went to Canada, pub. Poems and Songs (1860; enlarged 2nd edn 1872). Ref Wilson, II, pp. 441-4, Brown. [S]

Murray, Alick (b. 1856), of Peterwell, Aberdeenshire, gardener, pub. Poems (Edinburgh, 1885). Ref Edwards, 9 (1886), pp. 213-17; Reilly (1994), p. 343. [S]

Murray, David Scott (b. 1853), of Selkirk, shoemaker’s son, insurance agent, pub. in newspapers and in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 9 (1886), pp. 354-8. [S]

Murray, George (1819-68), shoemaker poet, pub. Islaford and other poems (London and Aberdeen, 1845), Literary Remains of George Murray (London and Aberdeen, 1860). [S]

Murray, William (b. 1856), of Brechin, farm worker, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 12 (1889), PP. 56-9. [S]

Mutrie, Robert (1832-80), of Paisley, weaver, pub. poems in local press, author of ‘The Shilling in the Puir Man’s Pouch’, in his Poems and Songs Dedicated to the West-End Callans Association (Paisley, 1909). Ref Brown, Leonard, p. 261. [S]

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Naismith, William, of Paisley, draper, pub. Visions of the Night, and Other Poems (1872). Ref Brown. [S]

? Neill, Charles, of Edinburgh, apprentice printer, lost a hand in a gun accident, became a teacher, pub. Poetical musings...with a literal translation of the third and fourth book of Virgil’s Aeneid (Lond, Aberdeen, Wick and Dornoch, 1884). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 348. [S]

Neilson, James Macadam (1844-83), of Campsie, Stirlingshire, engraver for calico-printer, self-educated, wrote journalism, pub. Poems and songs, chiefly in the Scottish language (Glasgow, 1877), Songs for the bairns; and, Miscellaneous poems, ed. by William Freeland (Glasgow, 1884). Ref Edwards, 9 (1886), pp. xx-xxi; Reilly (1994), p. 348, Reilly (2000), p. 336, Murdoch, pp. 387-94. [S]

? Nelson, Henry (fl. 1725-1729), A Poem, in the Honour of the Antient and Loyal Society of the Journey-Men Taylors, who are to Dine at the King’s-Inns, on Monday the 25th Inst, July; 1726 (Dublin, [1726]); A New Poem on the Procession of Journey-Men Taylors; who are to Dine at the Kings’s Inns, on Tuesday the 25th of this Instant July 1727 (Dublin, [1727]); Poem on the Procession of Journeymen Taylors, July the 28th, 1729 ([Dublin, 1729]). Ref Christmas, pp. 67-9. [I] [LC 1]

Nevay, John (1792-1870), of Forfar, handloom weaver who ‘turned to literature for diversion’ (DNB), pub. A Pamphlet of Rhymes (1818); Poems and Songs (Dundee, 1818); Poems and Songs (Forfar, 1821); Emmanuel, a sacred poem in nine cantos. With other poems (1831); The peasant; a poem in nine cantos; with other poems (Edinburgh, 1834); The Child of Nature, and other poems (Dundee, 1835); Rosaline’s Dream, in four duans; and other poems (Edinburgh and London, 1853); The Fountain of the Rock (Forfar, 1855). Ref Wilson, II, pp. 122-4, DNB. [S]

Newbigging, Thomas (b. 1833), of Glasgow, moved to Lancashire, cotton factory worker, gas engineer, pub. Poems and Songs (1881).  Ref Edwards, 3 (1881), pp. 402-6. [S]

Newman, Sarah (b. c. 1752), of Odiham, Hampshire, orphan, only education ‘occasional lesson from a schoolmaster’, domestic servant, then took in sewing and worked at haymaking, won 500 subscribers for her Poems, on Subjects Connected with Scripture, ed. by Elijah Waring (Alton, London & Sherborne, 1811), BL 11633.e.27. Ref Jackson, p. 242. [F]

? Newton, William, (1750-1830), carpenter, the Peak Minstrel’. Ref GM 57 (1785), 169-70, 212-13; DNB, Christmas, pp. 31-2.

? Nicholl, Robert (1814-37), journalist and poet, died of consumption at twenty-three, pub. The Poems of Robert Nicoll (2nd edn, Edinburgh, 1842). Ref Maidment (1983), 84, Maidment (1987), pp. 145-7, 228-9, Shanks, p. 116, Douglas, pp. 233-45, 311-12, Miles, X, p. xviii. [S]

? Nicholls, H.R., Chartist poet, pub. in The Friend of the People, Notes to the People and Cooper’s Journal. Ref Kovalev, pp. 131-2, Scheckner, pp. 293, 342.

? Nicholls, Thomas, author of The Wreath, a Collection of Poems (1790?), Dobell 1153, BL T.413(2); Shenstone, or the Force of Benevolence (1776), Dobell 1154; The Harp of Hermes (1797?), BL 11602.f.1(7). Ref Dobell, ESTC.

Nicholson, James (1822-97), of Edinburgh, herd boy, tobacco worker, village tailor, head tailor at Govan workhouse, temperance writer, pub. Kilwuddie, and other poems (Glasgow: Scottish Temperance League, 1863, several later editions), Father Fernie, the botanist: a tale and a study, including his life; Wayside lessons; and Poems (Glasgow, 1868), Idylls o’ hame, and other poems (London, Edinburgh and Glasgow, 1870), Rest for the weary: or, Mary’s wa’-gaun (Glasgow and Edinburgh, 1875), Poems by James & Ellen C. Nicholson (London and Glasgow, 1880), Wee Tibbie’s garland, and other poems (Glasgow, ?1880), Wee Tibbie’s garland, and other poems and readings, new enlarged edn (Glasgow, 1888), Willie Waugh, and other poems, by James & Ellen C. Nicholson (Edinburgh and Glasgow, 1884). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 352, Reilly (2000), pp. 339-40, Murdoch, pp. 125-32. [S]

Nicholson, John (1790-1843), The Airedale Poet, wool-sorter, followed this occupation all of his life expect ‘for intervals when he was hawking his poems’; The Siege of Bradford (1821); Airedale in Ancient Times (1825); The Lyre of Ebor...and other poems (London, 1827); Folly of the Chartists (Bradford, 1839); Strictures on the proposal of a New Moral World (Bradford, 1839) [attack on Owenism]; Complete Poems with a life (1844) and 2nd ed in 1876; Lines on the young lady drowned in the Strid (Bradford, nd). Ref: James, p. 172, Vicinus (1974), pp. 141, 143, 144-5, 151-2, 162-4, 170, 174-6, Maidment (1987), pp. 173-5. 181-5, 347-8, Johnson, items 649-53 Goodridge (1999), item 84, Harvey, EPFTD; see also Tony Harrison’s well-researched play about Nicholson, Poetry or Bust (in his Plays: Three, London: Faber, 1996, pp. 1-59). [LC 4]

Nicholson, Thomas, Manchester poet, ‘humble and obscure’, author of A Peal for the People, with Sundry Changes (Manchester, 1849), The Warehouse Boy of Manchester (1852). Ref Harland, p. 320, Maidment (1987), pp. 174-9. (Johnson, item 654, appears to be another Thomas Nicholson), of Hunslet, Leeds).

Nicholson, William (1783-1849), the Galloway Poet, pedlar, friend of Hogg, pub. Tales in Verse and Miscellaneous Poems Descriptive of rural life and manners (1814, 2nd edn Edinburgh, 1828). Also a third edition; known for his ballad ‘Brownie of Blednoch’. Ref Edwards, 3 (1881), pp. 63-70; Wilson, II, pp. 43-6, Shanks, p. 159, Douglas, pp. 301-2, EPFTD, Miles, X, p. xviii, Johnson, item 655. [S]

Nicol, Alexander (fl. 1739-1766) Scottish packman and son of a packman, one year only at school, Nature without Art: Nature’s Progress in Poetry (1739); Nature’s Progress in Poetry (1739), The Rural Muse (1753); both 1739 books reprinted in 1766 as Poems on Several Subjects. Ref EPFTD. [S]

Nicol, Charles (b. 1858), of Pollokshaws, worked in a weaving factory, in a printer’s engraving department, and as a travelling salesman/representative, pub. Poems and Songs, Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect (Edinburgh, undated). Ref Edwards, 6 (1883), pp. 70-72; Leonard, pp. 342-5. [S]

Nicol, James (1769-1819), of Traquair, Selkirk, shoemaker poet, later minister, Poems Chiefly in Scottish Dialect (1805), there may be other volumes. Ref Winks, p. 313. [S]

Nicol, James (1800-60), weaver at Luthermuir, Angus, ‘studied the Bible at his home and walking abroad’ (Reilly), pub. The Life of Paul the Apostle in metre (Brechin, 1845), An abridgement of Bible history, in verse (Aberdeen, 1860). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 340. [S]

Nicoll, Robert (1814-37), of Auctergaven, Perthshire, son of a ruined farmer turned day-labourer, apprenticed to grocer, pub. Poems and Lyrics (Edinburgh, 1835, 1842, 1843, 1852, 1855; each ed. claims to have additions, and later memoirs); Tales of the Glens (1836); Marian Wilson, a tale of persecuting times (1845). Ref Wilson, II, pp. 370-8, Ashraf (1975), 159-62, Ashraf (1978), I, p. 14, Johnson, item 656, EPFTD. [LC 5] [S]

Nicoll, Thomas P. (b. 1841), of Aberdeen, ironmonger from thirteen, bookseller, clerk, pub, Trifles in verse (Aberdeen and Greenwich, 1874) . Ref Reilly (2000), p. 340. [S]

Nicolson, Laurance J (b. 1844), of Lerwick, Shetland, cabinet-maker, clerk, poems in Murdoch. Ref Murdoch, pp. 394-9. [S]

Niven, John, journeyman baker, The Strathmore melodist: a collection of original poems and songs (London 1846). [S]

Noble, Samuel (b. 1859), of Arbroath, worked in an Aberdeen jute mill, sailor, shopkeeper, librarian, pub. Rhymes and recollections, with a biographical introduction by John Paul (Dundee, 1896). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 354. [S]

? Noel, Thomas, Chartist poet, wrote ‘The Pauper’s Drive’. Ref Scheckner, pp. 294-5.

Norval, James (b. 1814), of Parkhead, Glasgow, weaver, pub. early in Glasgow and other newspapers. Ref Edwards, 6 (1883), pp. 193-200; Murdoch, pp. 138-43. [S]

? Notman, Peter (b. 1818), of Paisley, son of a cowfeeder, author of ‘Lines on Mechanism’ in his Small Poems and Songs by ‘Petrus’ (Paisley, 1840). Ref Leonard, pp. 176-7. [S]

Nunn, Robert, (c. 1808-53), of Newcastle upon Tyne, slater, popular songwriter, lost his sight in an accident. Ref Allan, pp. 318-41.

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? O’Connor, Murrough (fl. 1719-40). subtenant of a farm in County Kerry from which he was evicted—all of his 5 extant poems written in connection with that eviction. Ref Carpenter, p. 83. [I]

? O’Conor, Charles Patrick  (‘The Irish Peasant Poet’) (b. 1837), of County Cork, of poor parents, went to England, wrote songs and journalism, took government clerical post in Canada, retired early and lived in Lewisham for many years, received Civil List pension, pub. Wreaths of fancy (London, 1870), Songs of a life: Wayside chants; Fatherland (London, 1875). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 345. [I]

? Ogden, James (1718-1802), fustian cutter or shearer of Manchester. Ref Dobell 3021, DNB.

? Ogden, William (1753-1822), son of James Ogden, radical. Ref DNB.

? Ogg, James (b. 1849), of Banchory-Ternan, Kincardineshire, lived in Aberdeedm saw-miller, pub. Willie Wally, and other poems (Aberdeen, 1873). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 346. [S]

O’Kelly, Pat (1754-c. 1812), a ‘colourful’ wandering bard, who ‘travelled around Ireland on a piebald pony seeking patrons for his poems’. Ref Carpenter, p. 468. [I]

? Oliver, William (b. 1800), of Newcastle upon Tyne, apprentice draper, grocer, songwriter. Ref Allan, pp. 228-44.

Olivers, Thomas (1725-1799), shoemaker poet, A Hymn on the Last Judgment. Another of praise to Christ (1763), An hymn to the God of Abraham, in three parts (1773), A Full Defence of the Rev. John Wesley, etc. (1776), A Rod for a reviler (1777), An account of the life of Mr. Thomas Olivers. Written by himself (1779), A Full Refutation of the doctrine of Unconditional Perseverance (1790), A descriptive and plaintive elegy, on the death of the late Reverend John Wesley (1791), An Answer to Mr. Mark Davis’s Thoughts on Dancing. To which are added serious considerations to dissuade Christian parents from teaching their children to dance (1792). Ref Winks, pp. 300-4. [LC 2]

O’Neill, John (1777-1858), shoemaker (‘we bear the Crispin name’), pub. Irish Melodies (n.d.), The Sorrow of Memory (n.d.), Alva (Dublin, 1821), The Drunkard, a poem (Dublin, 1840), The Blessings of Temperance (Dublin, 1851), The Triumph of Temperance (Dublin, 1852), Handerahan, the Irish Fairyman; and legends of Carrick (Dublin, 1854), Hugh O’Neill, the Prince of Ulster. A Poem (Dublin, 1859); (with James Devlin) letter and ‘Sonnet, to Mr. Bloomfield, with Prospectus’ (1820), in Bloomfield, Remains, 1824, I, pp. 164-6. Ref Winks, pp. 316-19. [I]

O’Neill, William Cassells (1854–89), of Paisley, ironmoulder, pub. collection 1884, emigrated to New Zealand in 1888. Ref Brown. [S]

Ormond, Thomas (1817-79), handloom and factory weaver, 2 poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 2 (1881), pp. 354-7. [S]

Orr, James (1770-1816) of Ballycarry, United Irishman and poet, a weaver like his father, pub. Poems on Various Subjects (Belfast, 1804) Ref DNB, Carpenter, p. 542. [I]

Orr, John (b. 1814), of Kilbirnie, Ayrshire, handloom weaver from age fourteen, later powerloom weaver, pub. Poems and songs (Ardrossan, 1874). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 351. [S]

Overs, John, carpenter, helped by Dickens, published much of his work in Tait’s Magazine, author of Evenings of a Working Man (1844), BL 1457.c.15). Ref Maidment (1983), 87, Maidment (1987), p. 19; Vicinus (1974), p. 182n47.

Owen, John L., author of ‘The City Singers’ (Ben Brierley’s Journal, September 1873, p. 241). Ref Maidment (1987), pp. 158-9.

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Pagan, Isobel, Isabel or Tibbie (c. 1742-1821), of Ayrshire, lame, self-taught hermit (‘lived alone in old brick-store hut’), unlicensed whisky-dealer, famed for the songs ‘Ca’ the yowes to the knowes’ (revised by Burns) and ‘Crook and plaid’; pub. A Collection of Songs and Poems on Several Occasions (Glasgow, 1805). Ref Scot, Douglas, pp. 55-6, 290, Jackson (1993), p. 249. [S] [F]

Palmer, John (1800-70), of Annan, Dumfriesshire, herder, cotton factory worker, agent, nurseryman, Liberal in local politics, pub. Poems and songs by the late John Palmer (Annan, 1871). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 356. [S]

? Parker, Benjamin (d. 1747), Money...a Poem in Imitation of Milton, humbly inscribed to...the Earl of Chesterfield (1740), BL 1163-0.e.13(2), advert on p. 16 for patent medicine prepared by Parker; Foxon p. 67.

? Parr, William, publican in London and Newbury, Berks., pub. Original songs and poetry (Speenhamland/Newbury, 1874). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 357.

Paterson, Archibald , of Selkirk, stocking frame weaver from age ten, self-taught, wrote for periodicals, pub. The musiad, and other poems (Selkirk, 1861), The forest lyre: or, man,.and other poems (Kelsoe, Melrose, Hawick and Galashiels, 1864). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 358. [S]

Paterson, James (1775-1843), of Paisley, weaver, published in periodicals. Ref Brown. [S]

Paterson, Jeannie Graham (b. 1871), of Springburn, Glasgow, milliner, pub. in local periodicals and religious magazines; Short threads from a milliner’s needle: Poems by Jeannie Graham Paterson (Glasgow, 1894). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 371. [S] [F]

Paterson, John (1777-1845), of Paisley, warper and brother to James, above, also pub. in periodicals. Ref Brown. [S]

Paterson, John (b. 1853), of Glasgow, working-class family, self-taught, telegraphist, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 9 (1886), pp. 226-32. [S]

Paterson, Mary, née Crighton (‘The Carnoustie Poetess’) (b. 1850), of Carnoustie, Angus, worker, m. a blacksmith, lived in Glasgow, active Methodist, pub. Poems (Dundee, 1872). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 358. [S] [F]

Patrick, James (1801-34), of Paisley, weaver, pub. posthumous collection of 1836. Ref Brown. [S]

? Patrick, James, ‘the intellectual pedlar’ of Kendal (not clear whether he is a poet or not; also described as Scottish, and ‘of Hawkshead’), childhood companion of Sara Hutchinson, and model for Wordsworth’s wanderer in ‘The Excursion’. See Dorothy Wordsworth’s journal entry for 27 January 1802, Stephen Gill, William Wordsworth: a Life (Oxford, 1990), pp. 25, 134, Cafarelli, p. 83.

Paxton, John W (b. 1854), of Millerhill, near Edinburgh, engine-keeper, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 6 (1883), pp. 173-80. [S]

Peacock, John (d. 1867), of South Shields, shoemaker, Chartist, cooperative storekeeper, second-hand bookseller in South Shields market, poet and songwriter, pub. in the Shields Garland (1859). Ref Allan, pp. 343-4.

Peacock, John Macleay (1817-77), of Kincardine, Chartist, later known as ‘The Birkenhead Poet’, also lived on Tyneside and travelled in southern Spain, ended his life as a Glasgow shopkeeper, pub. Poems and Songs (1864), Hours of Reverie (1867), Poems (1880). Ref New DNB, Reilly (2000), p. 361. [LC 6] [S]

Pearson, Edward, farm labourer at Ashford, Kent, pub. The history of Jimmie Lee, an ambassador of Christ of small stature, with a large heart, which kept his tongue in constant exercise with the king’s messenger for fifty-two years (Rochford, Esssex, 1872). Ref Reilly (2000), pp. 361-2.

Pearson, Susanna (1779-1827), of Donington, Lincs., daughter of a surgeon-apothecary, employed as a domestic servant, pub. Poems, Dedicated by Permission to the Right Honourable the Countess Fitzwilliam (Sheffield and London, 1790), Poems on Various Subjects (London, 1800). Ref Jackson (1993), p. 253, Johnson, item 692, Burmester, item 465 and p. 130 (image). [F]

Peddie, Robert, pub. The Dungeon Harp: Being a Number of Poetical Pieces Written During a Cruel Imprisonment of Three Years in the Dungeons of Beverley: Also a Full Proof of the Perjury Perpetrated Against the Author by Some of the Hired Agents of the Authorities (Edinburgh, 1844), James, p. 177, who cites this as a typical nineteenth-century labouring-class nature poem; Maidment (1987), p. 19 says the poem ‘deserves hearing’. [LC 5] [S]

Penman, William (‘Rhyming Willie’) (1848-77), of Carronshore, Falkirk, Stirlingshire, blacksmith then foundry worker in Glasgow, leg crushed in accident, ‘Good Templar’ and Freemason, friend of James Nicholson, pub. Echoes from the ingleside: a selection of songs and poems (Glasgow, 1878). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 363. [S]

? Pennie, John Fitzgerald (1782-1848), The Royal Minstrel, or, the witcheries of Endor, an epic poem, in eleven books (Dorchester, 1817), The Tale of a Modern Genius, or the Miseries of Parnassus (London: J. Andrews, 1827)—an autobiography. Ref DNB, Johnson, item 697, Goodridge (1999), item 87.

? Perring, Samuel, of Blackburn, ‘from birth a cripple...his arms and hands being mis-shapen’, pub. poems in the newspapers. Ref Hull, pp. 343-6.

? Petrie, George, mentioned by Ashraf as author of a poem called Equality, (Ashraf also mentions an otherwise unidentified ‘Charles Petrie’ on p. 24; probably the same person misnamed); COPAC lists The Works of George Petrie, comprising Equality and other poems; select extracts from the letter of Agrarius; with a biographical memoir of the author (London1841) and describes him as a political writir. Ref Ashraf (1978), I, p. 44; COPAC/BL.

Phillips, James Gordon (b. 1852), of Newmill, Banffshire, herding boy, apprentice tailor, pub. in the Banffshire Journal and the Elgin Courier, involved in archaeology and local history, pub. Wanderings in the highlands of Banff and Aberdeen shires; with trifles in verse by J.G. Phillips (Banff, 1881). Ref Murdoch, pp. 424-5, Reilly (1994), p. 377. [S]

Picken, David (1809-74 or -75), of Paisley, drawboy and weaver, Chartist, pub. posthumous Poems and songs, with a memoir of the author and notes (Paisley, 1875). Ref Brown, Reilly (2000), p. 367. [S]

? Picken, Ebenezer (1769-1816), of Paisley, son of a weaver, friend of Alexander Wilson, made various attempts to train for the ministry, worked as a schoolmaster and in commerce, often lived in poverty, pub. Poems and Songs (1813). Ref DNB, Wilson, I, pp. 443-6, Leonard, p. 188. [S]

? Picken, Joanna [Belfrage] (1798-1859), of Edinburgh, daughter of Ebenezer Picken, poet of Paisley, emigrated to Canada in 1842, pub. verse in the Glasgow Courier, two poems in Wilson, II, pp. 174-5. Refs DNB, Boos (1995), Leonard, pp. 188-91, 371. [S] [F]

Pickup, John (b. 1860) (‘Jean Piko’), of Blackburn, largely self-taught, weaver from aged 10, later insurance agent, dialect and local poet, a key figure in nurturing other Blackburn poets. Ref Hull, pp. 404-9

Plumb, Samuel, member of the ‘Nottingham group’, sent a verse-letter to John Clare. Ref James, p. 171.

Plummer, John (1831-1914), of London and Kettering, staymaker, partially lame and deaf, pub. Songs of Labour, Northamptonshire Rambles and Other Poems (With an Autobiographical Sketch of the Author’s Life) (London and Kettering, 1860). Ref Vincent, pp. 207, 183, Ashton & Roberts, p. 63, Reilly (2000), p. 369. [LC 6]

Pointon, Priscilla, Mrs I. Pickering (c. 1754-1801), of Lichfield, blind from age 12, married a saddler in Chester, won more than 1,000 subscribers for her Poems on Several Occasions (Birmingham, 1770), which are added poetical sketches, ed. by Joseph Weston (Birmingham and London, 1794). Ref Staffs. Poets, pp. 387-9; Jackson (1993), p. 259, Lonsdale (1989), pp. 272-6. [F]

Polin, Edward (1816-43), of Paisley, drawboy, handloom weaver and pattern-setter, involved with Radical party and became editor of Newcastle Courant, drowned, first poems appeared in Chartist Circular, published anonymously a 24-page pamphlet, a short satirical piece, Councillors in Their Cups, or the Reformed Transformed; a Lyrical Laughterpiece (Paisley, 1842). Ref Brown, I, pp. 59-60, Leonard, pp. 160-5. [S]

Porter, Alexander (d. 1863), shepherd of Edzell, Angus, pub. Poems on various subjects (Montrose, 1861). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 372. [S]

Porter, Hugh, weaver, of County Down, associated with Mary Tighe and Thomas Percy, pub. Poetical Attempts (Belfast, 1813). Ref Bob Heyes, Carpenter, p. 552. [I]

Potter, Mary Jane (b. 1833), of York, moved to Montrose, daughter of a ship‘s carpenter, looked after her sister’s orphaned children, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 9 (1886), pp. 375-9. [S] [F]

Powell, James Henry (b. 1830), of London, engineer’s son, worked in paper mill, then as an engineer, pub. Phases of Thought and Feeling, Poems and Lyrics (London: Partidge & Co, 1857); Life incidents; and, Poetic pictures (London, 1865). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 373, inf. Bob Heyes.

? Powell, Thomes E., Member of London Trades Council, pub. Down the river, from Pimlico Pier to Temple Bar: a satire (1870).

Preston, Benjamin (1819-1902), of Bradford, wool sorter and comber, publican, dialect writer, known as ‘The Burns of Bradford’, pub. Dialect and other poems by Ben Preston (London, 1881). Ref Ashraf (1975), pp. 233-6, Ashraf (1978), I, pp. 7-8, 227-9, Vicinus (1974), p. 161, Reilly (1994), p. 385. [LC 6]

? Preston, Edward Bailey, itinerant calligrapher, poet and correspondent of Clare. (Not sure quite what a calligrapher is in this context—?transcribed documents—?did pub signs or something??).

Price, Emma, of humble origin, English parents, mother died, lived with father in the workhouse, nurserymaid, then lived in Edinburgh Blind Asylum, pub. Verses, by a blind girl (Edinburgh, 1868). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 374. [S] [F]

? Price, Frederick, of Bilston, Staffs, compositor, pub. Rustic Rhymes (1859). Ref Staffs. Poets, pp. 152-3.

? Price, Henry, Land-Waiter (i.e. customs officer) in the Port of Poole, author of Poems, Never Published Together, with a commentary by Moses Browne (1749, Dobell 1451); Batrachomuomachia, or, the Battle of the Frogs and Mice, translated from Homer...with some additional poems by the same hand (1736, Dobell 1452); Poems on Various Subjects (1741), Foxon, p. 639, BL Ref Dobell, ESTC, Foxon.

Prince, John Critchley (1808-66), of Manchester, the ‘Reedmaker Poet’, leading figure in the ‘Sun Inn’ group, also lived in Blackburn, pub. The Death of the Factory Child’ (1841); Hours With the Muses (1841). Ref Harland, pp. 285, 302, 349-50, 362-3, 366-8, 374-5, 381-2, 390-1, 420, 432-3, 446, 476, Hull (photograph of the poet on the frontispiece), pp. 49-57, Cross, pp. 142-7, James, p., 171-3, Vicinus (1973), 743-5, Vicinus (1974), pp. 141-3, 152-5, 159-60, 163-7, 171-2, 176-8, Ashraf (1978), I, p. 14, Maidment (1983), 79, 84, Maidment (1987), p. 98-101, 111-16, 136-7, 191-5. 198-200, 338-44, Goodridge (1999), item 91, EPFTD, Miles, X, p. xiii, Maidment, Brian and A.S. Crehan, ‘The Death of the Factory Child’—J.C. Prince and Nineteenth-Century Working-Class Poetry (Manchester, 1987), Reilly (2000), p. 375. [LC 5]

? Pringle, Thomas (1789-1834), farmer’s son from Blakelaw, near Kelso, emigrated to South Africa, returned as ardent abolitionist, pub. Ephemerides or Occasional Poems, written in Scotland and South Africa (London, 1828), copy in Clare’s library. Ref Wilson, II, pp. 100-104, Douglas, p. 305, EPFTD. [S]

Procter, Andrew (b. 1841), of Dalkeith, draper, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 3 (1881), pp. 367-8. [S]

Procter, Richard Wright (1816-81), barber, ‘spare-time antiquarian and poet’, member of the ‘Sun Inn’ group of Manchester poets, referred to in Alexander Wilson’s ‘The Poet’s Corner’, contributed to The Festive Wreath (1842), author of Reminiscences of a Barber’s Clerk. Ref Harland, pp. 356-7, 365, 540-2, 545--6, Vicinus (1973), 743, Vicinus (1974), p. 160, Maidment (1987), p. 166.

? Proctor, James (b. 1826), of Dalkeith, of humble origin, tailor’s apprentice,  carpenter, temperance advocate, religious minister, pub. A Crack about the Drink; or, a poetical dialogue betwen a total abstainer and a moderate drinker (Dalkeith, 1849). Ref Edwards, 2 (1881), pp. 79-83. [S]

Proudlock, Lewis (1801-26), of Callaly, Northumberland, miner turned schoolteacher, poetry includes dialect work, pub. Poetical Works (Jedburgh, 1826), The “Borderland muse” (London, 1896), Poems and songs (Haltwhistle, c. 1865). Ref Johnson, item 727, Jarndyce, item 1466, Reilly (1994), p. 386, Reilly (2000), p. 378.

Purdie, David Walter (b. 1860), of Hutlerbury, Vale of Ettrick, Selkirkshire, ‘The Ettrick Bard’, farmworker, self-styled ‘unlettered son of toil’, pub. Poems and songs (Selkirk, 1897). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 387. [S]

? Purdy, Victory (1747-1822), known as ‘The Kingswood Collier’ and ‘The Walking Bible’, popular travelling preacher and hymn-writer, pub. Poetical miscellanies. With a life of the untutored author, and a facsimile of his hand writing (Bristol, 1825). Ref Johnson, item 730.

Purves, Peter (b. 1799), of Dunbar, East Lothian, gardener, teacher, Sunday school superintendant, librarian, pub. The poetical works of Peter Purves, Kirkcaldy, with portrait and prefatory sketch of the author by Isaac E. Marwick (Edinburgh, Religious Tract Society of Scotland, Kircaldy, 1879).  Ref Reilly (2000), p. 379. [S]

? Purvis, William, ‘Blind Willie’ (1752-1832), of Newcastle upon Tyne, blind son of a waterman, street musician and singer, composed rhymes and tunes, a ‘traditional working class songwriter’ (Vicinus). Ref Allan, pp. 54-8, 188; Vicinus (1974), pp. 144, 164.

Purvis, William (‘Billy ’) (1794-1853), born near Edinburgh, apprentice joiner, theatre ‘call boy’, poet, conjurer, clown, musician and proprietor of a travelling theatre and of the Victoria Theatre, Newcastle: not much of a poet, but a key figure in Newcastle popular culture, celebrated in poems and songs by others listed here. Ref: Allan, pp. 412-14; J.P. Robson, Life and Adventures of Billy Purvis (1849); The Life of Billy Purvis, the Extraordinary, Witty and Comical Showman (Newcastle: T. Arthur, 1875; facsimile edition, Newcastle upon Tyne: Frank Graham, 1981). [S]

? Pyott, William (b. 1851), of Ruthven, Forfarshire, mill-overseer’s son, cloth-lapper, pub. Poems and songs (Blairgowrie, 1883; enlarged edition, Dundee, 1885). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 388. [S]

Pyper, Mary (1795-1870), of Edinburgh, father pressed into army and never returned, taught by mother, recurrent illness, lacemacer and seamstress, pub. Select Pieces by Mary Pyper (1847); Sacred Poems (Edinburgh, 1865). Ref Leonard, p. 266, Reilly (2000), p. 380. [S] [F] [LC 5]

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Quinn, Roger (b. 1850), of Dumfries, Irish father and Scottish mother, shopwer and clerk, later itinerant musician in summer, living in a Glasgow lodging-house in winter, pub. The heather lintie: being poetical pieces, chiefly in the Scottish dialect (Dumfries, 1861; 2nd edn inserts ‘spiritual and temporal’ into title, 1863). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 381. [S]

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Rack, Edmund (1735?-1787), poet, son of a labouring weaver, Quaker family. Ref DNB.

? Radford, Joseph, of Birmingham, Chartist poet, pub. in The Northern Star. Ref Kovalev, pp. 96-7, Scheckner, pp. 298, 342.

Rae, James R. (b. 1842), of Dennyloadhead, Stirlingshire, cartright’s son, coachmaker, President of Glasgow Burns Club, pub. Imperial Poems, by J.R. (1888) [16 pp.]. Ref Edwards, 14 (1891), pp. 209-14; Reilly (1994), p. 391. [S]

Rae, John S. (b. 1859), of New Deer, Aberdeenshire, draper, pub. Poems and Songs, with an Introduction by D.H. Edwards, (Edinburgh, 1884). Ref Edwards, 3 (1881), pp. 216-19; Reilly (1994), p. 391. [S]

Rae, Thomas (1868-89), ‘Dino’, of Galashiels, Selkirkshire, draper and factory worker, health failed, wrote for the Border Advertiser, pub. Songs and verses, with a Preface by Andrew Lang (Edinburgh, 1890). Ref Edwards 11 and 12 (1889), pp. viii-ix; Reilly (1994), p. 391. [S]

? Ramsay, Allan (1684-1758), poet and bookseller, son of a leadmine manager. Ref Craik, II, pp. 206-8; Crawford, passim, EPFTD. [S]

? Ramsay, Grace C., née Cadzow (1822-72), of Lanark, m. a tailor, pub. Harp-tones in life’s vale: being short poems, exercises in verse, and paraphrases, including a metrical version of the Book of Job and the Song of Solomon, by Thomas and Grace C. Ramsay (Edinburgh and Lanark, 1895) [Reilly says NOT joint authorship]. Ref Reilly (2000), p. 382-3. [S] [F]

Ramsay, John (1802-79) carpet weaver and poet; of Kilmarnock, pub. Woodnotes of a Wanderer (1836, nine editions to 1869), Poems (Edinburgh and London, 1836), Eglington Park Meeting, and Other Poems (2nd ed., Edinburgh, 1840); Gleanings of the Gloamin (1865, 1868, London, 1870). Ref Edwards, 3 (1881), pp. 270-3; Wilson, II, pp. 260-1, DNB, Johnson, item 741, Reilly (2000), p. 383. [S]

Ramsay, Thomas (b. 1822), of Kirkfieldbank, Lanarkshire, tailor, pub. The sky scraper: a collection of original & popular recitations (London, 1860), Harp-tones in life’s vale: being short poems, exercises in verse, and paraphrases, including a metrical version of the Book of Job and the Song of Solomon, by Thomas and Grace C. Ramsay (Edinburgh and Lanark, 1895). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 393 [who states ‘not joint authorship. Grace C. Ramsay died in 1872’.], Reilly (2000), p. 383. [S]

Ramsbottom, Joseph (1831-1901), dyehouse worker, later businessman, Lancashire dialect poet, author of ‘Preawd Tum’s Prayer’, in Country Words (Manchester, 1864), Phases of distress: Lancashire rhymes (Manchester, 1864). Ref Harland, pp. 351-2, 491-6, 501-2, 505-6, 508-10, Maidment (1987), pp. 86-90, 261-5, 362-4, Hollingworth, p. 154. [LC 6]

Rankin, Alexander (b. 1842), of Dundee, flaxdresser, pub. poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 3 (1881), pp. 254-6 [S]

Rannie, John, ‘...a young Scotsman, of little or no Education. I saw him behind the Counter of Taylor’s shop in Holborne as a Journeyman on very low wages...He certainly has Genius’ (quoted by Harvey), pub. Poems (1789; 2nd edn, Aberdeen, 1791). Ref Harvey, Goodridge (1999), item 93. [S]

Rathmell, Michael (b. 1828), of Huby, Harewood, Yorskshire, farmhand, then a series of menial jobs in Leeds, retired in ill health in 1884, pub. Spring blossoms and autumn leaves: a collection of poems (Leeds, 1886). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 394.

Rawcliffe, John (b. 1844), of Ribchester, Lancs, brother of Richard Rawcliffe, dialect and local poet, bobbin winder and handloom then powerloom weaver at Blackburn, emigrated to USA, pub. jointly with his brother, Pebbles fro’ Ribbleside (Blackburn, 1891). Ref Hull, p. 194, pp. 253-63, Reilly (1994), p. 394.

Rawcliffe, Richard (1839-58), of Ribchester then Blackburn, handloom then powerloom calico weaver, then overlooker, emigrated to Australia to combat consumption in his final year, pub. poems jointly with his brother John, Pebbles fro’ Ribbleside (Blackburn, 1891). Ref Hull, pp. 194-202. Ref Reilly (1994), p. 394.

? Reed, Joseph (1723-1787), poet, son of a Presbyterian ropemaker.

Reed, James, journeyman slater, pub. Metrical Memories of the late war, and other poems (Edinburgh, 1861). [S]

? Rees, William (1802-83), shepherd then minister, Welsh poet. [W]

Reid, John (1785-1865), of Paisley, weaver, minor publications and leaflets. Ref Brown. [S]

Reid, John Dougall, ‘Kaleidoscope’, of Glasgow, draper, soldier, poems in Murdoch and Edwards. Ref Murdoch, pp. 426-7; Edwards 10 (1887), pp. 73-84. [S]

Reid, John Pringle (b. 1862), of Aberlady, Haddingtonshire, merchant’s son orphaned at ten, gardener and glassworker, pub. Facts and fancies in poem and song (Edinburgh, 1886). Ref  Edwards, 6 (1883), pp. 241-4; Reilly (1994), p. 398. [S]

Reid, Robert (b. 1847), of Fyvie, Aberdeenshire, ‘Rowland’, shoemaker, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 12 (1889), pp. 98-101. [S]

? Reid, Robert (‘Rob Wanlock’)  (1850-1922), of Wanlockhead, Dumfriesshire, elementary education, clerk in Glasgow and Belfast, emigrated to Canada, pub. Moorland Rhymes (Dumfries, 1874). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 387. [S]

Reid, William (b. 1827), of Peterhead, herder, shoemaker, pub. in Aberdeenshire press, and The Last o’ the Warlocks (1864) and Auld Ronald and other rhymes (dnk). Ref Edwards, 2 (1881), pp. 349-52. [S]

Rentoul, John (b. c. 1830s), of Paisley, weaver, emigrated to Australia, pub. Reminiscences of a Paisley Weaver, with Twenty-Six Years’ Experience in Melbourne (1878). Ref Brown. [S]

Rhodes, T., Dunstan Park; or an Evening Walk. A Poem. By...a Journeyman Ribbon-Weaver (Newbury: private, [1786]), by T. Rhodes, CR LXI, 234. Ref Jackson (1985).

Richardson, Charlotte Caroline (1775-1850), pub. Poems written on different occasions (York, 1806; 3rd edn of 1809 has Bloomfield as a subscriber), Poems chiefly composed during the pressure of severe illness (York, 1809), Waterloo, a poem (1815), Isaac and Rebecca, a poem (1817), Harvest, a poem with other poetical pieces (1818), The soldier’s child, or Virtue triumphant (1821), Ludolph; or the light of nature (1823). Ref Johnson, item 754 (much information); ABC, pp. 126-8, Jackson (1993), pp. 268-9 (seems to class these works as by two people with the same name), Burmester, item 476 (gives her dates as 1777-1853). [F] [LC 4]

Richardson, George (1807-66), Manchester poet, author of Patriotism: In Three Cantos, and Other Poems (1844), contributed to The Festive Wreath (1842). Ref Harland, pp. 313-14, 326-7, 376, 421, Maidment (1987), p. 101, 116-19; Vicinus (1974), p. 162. [LC 5]

? Richardson, J., ‘Yorkshire Volunteer’, author of Poems on Several Occasions, Chiefly Pastoral (Winchester [1785?], BL 11643.aa.31); Poems on Various Subjects, chiefly Pastoral (Darlington, 1779, BL 632.df.4). Ref ESTC.

Richardson, John (1817-86), of St, John’s, Cumberland, mason and builder, later a schoolmaster, dialect poet, pub. “Cummerland” talk: being short tales and rhymes in the dialect of that county, together with a few miscellaneous pieces in verse (London and Carlisle, 1871). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 390.

? Richardson, R., sailor, author of The Dolphin’s Journal epitomiz’d, in a Poetical Essay (1768), BL 1465.f.55. Ref ESTC.

? Richley, Matthew (1820-1904), of Bishop Auckland, County Durham, tailor, later caretaker and librarian of Mechanics’ Institute. pub. The oakland garland (Bishop Auckland, 1879). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 390.

? Riddell, Henry Scott (1798-1870), of Sorbie, Dumfriesshire, shepherd, later clergyman poet, pubs. include Songs of the Ark, with other poems (1831), Poems, Songs and Miscellaneous Pieces (1847), Poetical works (Glasgow, 1871, 2 vols), “Scotland yet”, and other verses (Hawick, 1898). Ref Wilson, II, pp. 190-6, Shanks, pp. 117-29, Douglas, p. 308 Reilly (2000), p. 391. [S]

? Rider, William, of Leeds, Chartist radical, heavily involved in The Northern Star, wrote ‘The League’, about the Anti-Corn Law League. Ref Kovalev, p. 98, Scheckner, pp. 299, 342.

Ridings, Elijah (1802-72), silk handloom weaver, of Manchester, member of the ‘Sun Inn’ group of Manchester poets, author of The Village Muse (Macclesfield, 1854), Streams from an old fountain (Manchester, 1863), contributed to The Festive Wreath (1842); The Village Muse, Containing the Complete Poetical Works of E. Ridings (1854). Ref Harland, pp. 242-4, Cross, pp. 147-8, James, p. 172, Maidment (1987), pp. 132-5, 243-9, 337-8, Vicinus (1973), 753, Vicinus (1974), pp. 141, 145-6, 171, 176, 178, Reilly (2000), p. 391. [LC 5]

Ridley, George (1835-64), of Gateshead, sent down the pit as a ‘trapper boy’ aged eight, severely injured and disabled in an accident which shortened his life, became a songwriter and performer, his songs printed in cheap popular editions. Ref Allan, pp. 446-63.

Rigbey, Richard (fl. 1682-1702): The cobbler’s corant (1690-1702), A new song in praise of the gentle craft (1682-1700), A new song, to the tune of the Prince of Orange’s delight (1689), The shoe-maker’s triumph, being a song in praise of the gentle craft, etc. (1695). Ref inf Bridget Keegan.

Ritchie, John (1778-1870), of Kirkcaldy, Fife, flax dresser, handloom weaver, draper, co-founder and later owner of The Scotsman, Edinburgh civic dignitary, pub. Royal soliloquies; The royal Highland home, and other poems (London, 1863), The Church, and the people (?1865), and other religious volumes of verse. Ref Reilly (2000), p. 392. [S]

Ritchie, William (b. 1827), of Paisley, blacksmith, went to Calcutta, then America, all the while working as a blacksmith, and back to Scotland, poems not separately collected. Ref Brown. [S]

Robb, John (b. 1855), of Kilspindie, Carse of Gowrie, ploughboy, railway porter, pub.,poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 6 (1883), pp. 162-6. [S]

Roberts, John (‘The Bard of the North’), miller at Balbirnie Mill, Brechin, pub. Groats, and thoughts while grinding (Dunbar, 1863). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 393. [S]

? Roberts, William Isaac (1786-1806), of Bristol, brewer’s son, clerk in banker’s office, author of Poetical Attempts (1784), Poems and Letters (London: Longman, Hurst and others, 1811). Ref Southey, pp. 213-4, Johnson, item 767, Goodridge (1999), item 96, PBSA, 57 (1963), 184-90.

Robertson, Alexander (b. 1848), of Cambuslang, son of a miner and a handloom weaver, miner, machinist, one poem pub. in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 2 (1881), pp. 155-6. [S]

Robertson, Alexander (b. 1825), of Glengairn, Ballater, Aberdeenshire, farm-worker, gardener-coachman, 2 poems pub. in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 2 (1881), pp. 326-7. [S]

? Robertson, James (fl. 1768-88), comedian of York, author of Poems (1770, 1780, 1787); Poems on Several Occasions (1773); A Collection of Comic Songs (2 vols, Edinburgh, 1800). Ref NCBEL II, EPFTD.

? Robertson, John (1767-1810), of Paisley, son of a grocer, worked as a weaver, joined the Fifeshire Militia, committed suicide, pub. ‘The ‘Toom Meal Pock’, in Brown, I, pp. 60-1, no collection. Ref Wilson, II, p. 536-7, Leonard, pp. 5-7. [S]

Robertson, John (1779-?1831), weaver, pub. The waddin’ day and other poems (Edinburgh, 1824). Ref Crockett, pp. 117-18. [S]

Robertson, John, of Perth, letter-carrier, pub. Original poems and songs (Perth, 1879). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 394. [S]

Robertson, Matthew (b. 1828), of Paisley, drawboy, weaver, worked in post office, later owned crystal and china shop, pub. poems in local papers. Ref Brown. [S]

? Robertson, William (b. 1808), of Longforgan, Carse of Gowries, Perthshire, served an apprenticeship, lived in London, pub. Poetic ramblings (London, 1865). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 394. [S]

? Robins, John Jr., ‘a solitary wanderer from village to village in his native Derbyshire’, Sensibility, with other poems (London and Exeter, 1806). Ref Johnson, item 768.

Robson, Joseph Philip (1808-70), Tyneside dialect poet and miscellaneous writer, ‘Bard of the Tyne and Minstrel of the Wear’, orphan, apprentice planemaker, then schoolmaster, suffered a disabling stroke, wrote a biography of Billy Purvis, pub. Poetic gatherings; or, stray leaves from my portfolio (Gateshead, 1839), Evangeline: or the spirit of progress; together with a copious selection of miscellaneous poems and songs, sentimental, homourous and local (Newcaslte upon Tyne, 1870). Refs: Allan, pp. 345-87, Ashton & Roberts, ch. 1, pp. 7-31, Johnson, item 772, Reilly (2000), p. 395.

? Robson, Mark Newton (b. 1861), of Denholm, blacksmith’s son, teacher, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 14 91891), pp. 31-6. [S]

Rodger, Alexander (1784-1846), Scottish poet, son of a Midlothian farmer, handloom weaver, journalist, Hints to the disaffected ‘sooty rabble,’ on their day of meeting, in order to petition for a reform of parliament, By James Black, esq., place-hunter (8th edn., Glasgow, 1816), Peter Cornclips, a tale of real life; with other poems and songs (Glasgow, 1827), Poems and Songs, humorous and satirical (Glasgow, 1838). Ref. Wilson, II, pp. 57-61, Murdoch, pp. 17-27, Maidment (1987), pp. 27-32, DNB, Douglas, p. 303, Johnson, items 775-7, EPFTD. [S]

Roger, James (b. 1841), of Kirkmichael, Ayrshire, grew up in poverty, worked for North British Railway Company from 1866, Station Master at Roslin Castle from 1870, pub. poems in People’s Journal. Ref Edwards, 3 (1881), pp. 52-4. [S]

? Rogerson, David, Newsvendor, author of Poetical Works, with the Author’s Address to Bambrough Castle (undated, nineteenth-century: one poem dated 1866). Ref BL

Rogerson, John Bolton (1809-59), of Manchester, poet, left school at 13, apprenticed clerk, member of the ‘Sun Inn’ group of writers, and ‘editor of short-lived magazines’ (Vicinus); editor of The Festive Wreath (1842), pubs. include Rhyme, Romance, and Revery, A Voice from the Town, And Other Poems, and The Wandering Angel and Other Poems (London, 1844). Ref Harland, pp. 229-31, 234-5, 240-1, 287-9, 291-2, 298-9, 314-15, 324-5, 427-9, Cross, pp. 147-8, Maidment (1987), pp. 155-6, 188-90, Vicinus (1973), 743, 746-78 Vicinus (1974), p. 160.

? Rollo, John, keeper of a Spitalfields Victualling House, anonymous poet and prose-writer referred to by John Bancks in 1738. Ref Christmas, pp 30-1, 101.

Rolph, Richard (b. 1801), blind peasant, itinerant fiddler, shrimp-seller, later a religious poet, pub. A Poetical Discourse (third edn, Bury St Edmunds, 1843). Ref The Life of Richard Rolfe, the blind peasant of Lakenheath (Bury St Edmunds, 1841); Cranbrook, p. 226.

Rorrison, David (d. c. 1778), of Paisley, weaver. Ref Brown. [S]

Ross, James, handloom weaver of Forfar, A Peep at Parnassus. A Poetical Vision (Forfar, 1821), Poems (1825), The Chaplet (nd). Ref NCSTC, Edwards, 2 (1881), pp. 352-4. (Johnson, item 781, has a Rotherham publication, Wild Warblings, 1817, probably another poet.) [S]

Ross, William Stewart (b. 1844), of Kirkbean, Gallowy, rural labourer, dominie, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 3 (1881), pp. 329-34. [S]

? Rounsevell, John, of Alterton or St. Juliot, Cornwall, ?shepherd, went to South Australia in 1867, pub. The adventures of Joseph Golding, his courtship, and marriage with Flora Percival, the Duchess of Botcinni: a tale of love in fairy style, with other poems (Plymouth, 1864). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 400.

? Roxby, Robert (1767-1846), the fisher poet of Tyneside, ‘born at Needless Hall, by the failure of his trustee, had to turn to business, and his long life was spent as a [banker’s] clerk’, pub. The Lay of the Reedwater Minstrel (Newcastle, 1809—reprinted 1832), pub. ‘Coquet Side’ as a broadside, 1823, and other publications jointly authored with Thomas Doubleday. Ref memorial stone in St. Nicholas’ church, Newcastle, Allan, pp. 160-2, Welford, III, pp. 335-8, Johnson, item 782, Miles, X, p. vi.

? Rudland, Mary (1854-71), of Sudbury, Suffolk, Sunday School teacher, died of TB, pub Mary Rudland: her sketches in prose and verse, edited by her father (London, 1873). Ref Reilly (2000), pp. 400-1. [F]

Rushforth, Benjamin (‘The Blind Poet of Bolton’) (b. 1805), of Elland, Halifax, son of woollen card manufacturer, apprentice grocer in Bolton, soldier, sight damaged, workhouse inmate, made and sold oilcloth cart-covers, pub. Original verses, published for his benefit, with an introductory sketch of his life by F.H. Thicknesse (Little Bolton, 1861), Miscellaneous poems (Bolton, 1869). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 401.

Rushton, Edward (1756-1814), blind poet and radical, Poems (1806), Poems and other writings (London, 1824). Ref Harland, pp. 339-41, 517-28, Ashraf (1975), pp. 95-8, Ashraf (1978), I, pp. 25, 36; Johnson, item 784, Goodridge (1999), item 100, Jarndyce, item 1474, Carpenter, p. 480. [LC 3]

Rushton, James, (b. 1848), of Rossendale then Blackburn, draper, pub. poems in newspapers. Ref Hull, pp. 325-8.

Rushton, John, of Blackburn, ‘colleague’ of William Billington (i.e. therefore a weaver), who apologises for his ‘poor’ and ‘untaught’ muse, later moved to Stockport. Ref Hull, pp. 132-4.

Russell, Jessie (b. 1850), of Glasgow, orphaned domestic servant, dressmaker, married a ship’s carpenter, pub. The Blinkin’ o’ the Fire and Other Poems (Glasgow, 1877). Ref Boos (1995), Leonard, pp. 306-10, Reilly (2000), p. 402. [S] [F] [LC 6]

Russell, Thomas (b. 1822), of Parkhead, Glasgow, coal-carter’s son and labouring man. Ref Murdoch, pp. 192-4. [S]

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Salisbury, George ( 1832-97), of Blackburn, factory worker, auctioneer, journalist, emigrated to US in 1874, editor then proprietor of the Fall River Advance. Ref Hull, pp. 159-65.

Sanderson, James (1788-1891), of Earlston, weaver, poems in Crockett. Ref Crocket, pp. 121-7. [S]

Sanderson, Robert (b. 1836), of West Linton, Peeblesshire, land surveyor and weaver, took violin lessons from Alexander Thom, pub. Poems and songs (Edinburgh, 1865). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 405. [S]

? Sankey, William S. Villiers, Chartist poet. Ref Kovalev, pp. 76-9.

Satchwell, Benjamin (1732-1810), of Leamington Priors’, Warwickshire, shoemaker, pub. The Rise and Fall of Troy, and Astronomical Characters and Their Use [lost works]. Ref Warwicks. Poets, pp. 161-5.

? Savage, Richard (d. 1743), shoemaker poet (among other things), Miscellaneous Poems and Translations (1726), A Poem sacred to the glorious memory of our late Sovereign Lord, King George, etc. (1727), The Bastard, a poem in five cantos (1728), The Wanderer (1729), Verses occasion’ed by the Viscountess Tyrconnel’s recovery at Bath (1730), The Volunteer Laureat. A poem (1732), On the departure of the Prince and Princess of Orange. A Poem (1734), The Progress of a Divine, a satire in verse (1735), Of Public Spirit in regard to Public works. An epistle in verse... (1737).

Scadlock, James (1775-1818), of Paisley, friend of Tannahill, weaver, bookbinder, engraver; poems posthumously puplished. Ref Wilson, I, pp. 527-8. [S]

? Scholes, John (?1808-63), of Rochdale, failed hat-manufacturer, later journalist, contributed to The Festive Wreath (1842) referred to in Alexander Wilson’s ‘The Poet’s Corner’ as author of ‘A Touching Scene’ and ‘many poems’. Ref Harland, pp. 341-2, 404-8, Hollingworth, p. 154.

? Scott, Andrew (1757-1839), of Bowden, Roxburghshire, poet and farm labourer, called ‘shepherd boy’, enlisted and served under Cornwallis in the American War of Independence, first collection pub. 1805; Poems Chiefly in Scots Dialect (Kelso, 1811, Jedbergh, 1821); published two other collections in 1821 and 1826. Shanks, pp. 143-6, Douglas, pp. 76-9, 294, Wilson, I, pp. 344-8, Johnson, items 804-5. [S]

? Scott, James Kim (1839-83), of Urr, Kircudbrightshire, limited education, tailor, musician, pub. Galloway gleanings: poems and songs (Castle-Douglas and Edinburgh, 1881). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 425; Edwards 9 (1886), p. xxv. [S]

? Scott, Mary, later Taylor (?1752-1793), daughter of a linen-merchant, pub. The Female Advocate (1774, reprinted Los Angeles: Augustan Reprint Society, 1984). Ref Lonsdale (1989), pp. 320-2, Fullard, pp. 566-7. [S]  [F]

Scott, Robert, Life of Robert Scott, Journeyman Wright. In Verse, Written by Himself. With Observations Moral and Religious (Dundee, 1801). [S]

? Scott, Thomas (1747-1821), religious writer, son of a grazier. [S]

Scown, George (fl. 1836-76), of Exeter, grocer, draper, hopster, journeyman painter, pub. Such is life!: or, the experiences of a West Country painter...containing many interesting events and incidents connected with his own history, in Exeter, London, Windsor, and Oxford, from 1836 to 1876 (Oxford, 1876). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 409, Bodleian.

Seath, William, of Kingskettle, Fife, weaver, pub. Poems, songs, and miscellaneous pieces, descriptive and humorous (Cupar-Fife, 1869), Rhymes and lyrics: humorous, serious, descriptive and satirical (St. Helens, 1897). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 426, Reilly (2000), p. 409. [S]

Sellars, David R. (b. 1854), ‘Smalltingle’, of Dundee, shoemaker, Trade Unionist, pub. poems in People’s Friend and elsewhere. Ref Edwards, 6 (1883), pp. 153-62. [S]

Semple, Robert (b. 1841), of Paisley, pattern designer, author of ‘A Sober Saturday Night’, in Brown, II, p. 364. Ref Leonard, pp. 332-3. [S]

Senior, Joseph (1819-92) Sheffield cutler and blade-forger, pub. Smithy Rhymes and Stithy Chimes; or, ‘The Short and Simple Annals of the Poor, spelt by the unletter’d muse’, of your humble bard, Joseph Senior (Sheffield: Leader & Sons, 1882); Additional Poems to Smithy Rhymes and Stithy Chimes, which have been conceived during the author’s semi and total blindness (Sheffield: Leader & Sons, 1884), copies in Bodleian. Ref Reilly (1994), p. 427, inf. Bob Heyes.

Service, David (?1776-?1828), of Yarmouth, formerly a shoemaker at Beccles, ‘The Caledonian Herd Boy’, An Elegy on the death of Mr. Swanton, painter, in Greater Yarmouth (Yarmouth, 1802), The Caledonian Herd Boy (Yarmouth, 1802), The Wild Harp’s Murmurs (Yarmouth, 1800), St. Crispin, or the Apprentice Boy (Yarmouth, 1804), A Voyage and Travels in the Region of the Brain (Yarmouth, 1808), A tour in pursuit of ideas, a picturesque view of all the Yarmouth public houses, a poem (Yarmouth, 1822), A brief sketch of the different professions, trades, etc. in the parish of Gorleston with Southtown (Yarmouth, 1828). Ref Winks, pp. 313, 314, Harvey, Johnson, item 809, Crambrook, p. 253. [LC 4] [S]

? Sewell, Robert, pub. An Essay in Rhyme, in two parts (Halsted: M. King, 1834), contains ‘To Burns’ and ‘To the memory of Bloomfield’, and a list of subscribers (Johnson, item 813). [S]

Shand, Alexander (b. 1845), of Drumblade, Aberdeenshire, catle tending aged nine, soldier, book canvasser, pub. Poems and songs, composed at home, Gibralter and Canada (Montreal, 1869), The white cockade: poems and songs composed at home and abroad, 3rd edlarged edn (Glasgow, 1873). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 413. [S]

Shanks, Henry (b. 1829), farmer’s son, drysalter, eyesight failed c. 1862, pub. Poems (Airdrie, 1872), The Peasant Poets Of Scotland And Musing Under The Beeches (Edinburgh and Glasgow, 1881). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 413. [LC 6] [S]

Sharp, James, of Paisley, silk mercer, shawl manufacture, pub. The Captive King and Other Poems (1887). Ref Brown. [S]

Shaw, Cuthbert (1739-1771), shoemaker’s son. Ref EPFTD, Cranbrook, p. 228. [LC 2]

? Shaw, James, pattern-designer, printer, schoolmaster at Tynron, Dumfriesshire. Ref Murdoch, pp. 212-14. [S]

Shaw, John (fl. 1824-5), ploughboy, sailor, actor, Woolton Green: a domestic tale, with other miscellaneous poems (Liverpool, 1825); Don Juan Canto XVII (Liverpool, 1824); Don Juan, Canto XVIII (Liverpool, 1825). Ref Johnson, 816-18. [LC 4]

? Shaw, Thomas, Apiarist of Saddleworth, pub. Recent Poems, on rural and other miscellaneous subjects (Huddersfield: printed for the author, 1824). Ref Johnson, item 822; inf. Bob Heyes.

Shelley, William (1815-95), illegitimate birth in Marylebone, London, worked in pits, quarries and fields from age fourteen, herring fisherman and agricultural labourer in Scotland, became a policeman in Aberdeen, pub. Aston Brook; also, a poem entitled, Are any bodies found? relating to the ferry-boat disaster on the River Dee (Aberdeen, ?1863), Flowers by the wayside (Aberdeen and Edinburgh, 1868). Ref Edwards, 9 (1886), p. 350; Reilly (2000), p. 414.

? Shepheard, James, author of An Hymn to the Holy and Undivided Trinity, written by James Shepheard during his Imprisonment in Newgate. Printed from the Copy which he wrote in a Book given to his Mother two hours before his execution (1718, Dobell 1644, BL 1851.c.19(29); Foxon S397; BL C.116.i.4(70); a dying speech (1718, BL 10350.g.12(16). Ref Dobell, ESTC.

Shiells [or Sheils or Shields], Robert (d. 1753), of Roxburghshire, ‘humble origins’, journeyman printer, poet and editor. [S]

Shorrock, James (b. 1841), of Craven, West Riding, dame school education, shepherd, stable-boy, sawpit worker, joiner and cabinet maker, temperance poet. Ref Hull, pp. 246-53.

? Shorter, Thomas (‘Thomas Brevoir’, 1823-99), errand boy, watch-case finisher, journalist, secretary of Society for Promoting Working Men’s Association and of the Working Men’s College, pub. Echoes from bygone days: or, love lyrics and character sonnets (London, 1889); Later autumn leaves: thoughts in verse, with sketches of character chiefly from our village and neighbourhood (London, 1896); Lyrics for heart and voice: a contribution to the hymnal of the future (London, 1883); Spring flowers and autumn leaves (London, 1893). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 433.

Sievwright, Colin (1819-95), of Brechin, Angus, son of handloom weaver, working 72-hour week or East Mill Co at age of eight (Reilly), pub. A garland for the ancient city: or, love songs for Brechin and its neighbourhood (with historical notes), 2nd edn (Brechin, 1899). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 434. [S]

Sillar, David (fl. 1789), friend of Burns, Poems (Kilmarnock, 1789). Ref Harvey, Johnson, item 822. [LC 3] [S]

Singer, John. (b. 1861), of Woodside, Aberdeen, spinner, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 12 (1889), pp. 116-21.

Skerrett, F.W., ‘our locomotive poet’, pub. Rhymes of the Rail (Leeds, 1920). Ref inf John Goodridge. [OP]

Skimming, Robert (1812-82), of Paisley, weaver, pub. Lays of Leisure Hours (1841), and another volume in 1851. Ref Brown. [S]

Skipsey, Joseph (1832-1903), of North Shields, mineworker at Percy Main Colliery, pub. Poems, songs and ballads (London and Newcastle upon Tyne, 1862), The collier lad, and other songs and ballads (Newcastle upon Tyne, 1864), Poems (Blyth, 1871), A book of miscellaneous lyrics (Backworth, 1878), Carols from the coal-fields, and other songs and ballads (London, 1886, new edn. 1888); Songs and Lyrics, Collected and Revised (1892). Ref Watson, R.B., Joseph Skipsey, His Life and Work (1909), NCBEL III, p. 648; Maidment (1983), 79, Maidment (1987), pp. 93-4, 204-5; Klaus (1985), pp. 75-6, Vicinus (1974), pp. 141, 143, 155-8, 167, 169-71, 197-8, EPFTD, Miles, V, p. 515, Ricks, p. 526, Reilly (1994), p. 436, Reilly (2000), pp. 421-2. [LC 6]

? Skirving, Adam, ‘Johnnie Cope’, of Garleton, Haddingtonshire farmer, older contemporary of Burns. Ref Shanks, p. 115; Edwards 12 (1889), p. 276. [S]

Skirving, Peter (b. 1829), of Edinburgh, a descendant of Adam Skirving, draper and outfitter, emigrated to Australia, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 12 (1889), pp. 276-80. [S]

? Slack, John, of Bristol, author of An Address to one of the Greatest, Gallantest, Most Loved and Humane Gentlemen in the World (1762, Dobell 1676). Ref Dobell.

? Smart, Alexander (1786-1866), of Montrose, Angus, apprentice watchmaker, became compositor in Edinburgh, wrote prose sketches and verse, pub. Songs of labour and domestic life; with, Rhymes for little readers (Edinburgh and London, 1860). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 423. [S]

Smith, Alexander (1829-66 or 1830-67), son of a Kilmarnock lace-pattern designer, pub. Life Drama (1853); City Poems (Cambridge, 1857), Edwin of Deira (Cambrdge, 1861, 1862), Poems (New York, 1879), Poetical Works, ed. by W. Sinclair (Edinburgh, 1909). Ref Wilson, II, pp. 467-76, Weinstein, M.A., W.E. Aytoun and the Spasmodic Controversy (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1968), DNB, Douglas, pp. 313-14, Leonard, pp. 207-14, EPFTD, Miles, V, p. 421, Reilly (2000), p. 424; Murdoch, pp. 227-32. [S]

? Smith, Alexander, of Zetland Cottage, Falkirk, Stirlingshire, pub. Agriculture: a poem  in sixteen books (Edinburgh, 1861). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 423. [S]

Smith, David Mitchell (b. 1848), of Bullionfield, Dundee, farm labourer]s son, railway clerk, dyer, pub. in newspapers, 3 poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 2 (1881), pp. 211-14 [S]

Smith, Ebenezer (b. 1835), of High Street, Ayr, third-generation shoemaker, pub. Verses (Glasgow, 1874), The season’s musings (Ayr, 1888). Ref Edwards, 3 (1881), pp. 98-102;  Reilly (1994), p. 440, Reilly (2000), p. 424, Murdoch, pp. 288-90. [S]

Smith, Elizabeth (Lizzie) Horne (b. 1876), of Hagghill, Glasgow, dairymaid, pub. Poems of a Dairymaid (Paisley, Edinburgh and London, 1898). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 440. [S] [F]

Smith, James, shoemaker, of Aberdeen, pub. Hame-spun rhymes (Aberdeen, 1879), Bodleian. Ref Reilly (2000), p. 425. [S]

Smith, James (c. 1814-1885), ‘Vinney’, of Forfar, handloom weaver, teacher, pub. poems in the Dundee papers. Ref Edwards, 1 and Edwards, 9 (1886), p. xxi. [S]

Smith, James (1824-87), of Edinburgh, son of a coach-lace weaver, printer, compositor, reader, librarian of the Mechanics’ Library, well-known Scottish poet and story-writer, pub. Poems and songs (Edinburgh, 1864), The merry bridal o’ Forthmains, and other poems and songs (Edinburgh, 1866, 2nd edn also 1866), Poems, songs and ballads (Edinburgh, 1869). Ref Reilly (2000), pp. 425-6, Murdoch, pp. 44-52; Edwards, 1 (1880), and 12 (1889), pp. xvii-xviii. [S]

Smith, John (b. 1836), of Springbank, Alyth, herder, wholesale draper, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 13 (1890), pp. 198-205. [S]

Smith, John G., stonemason of Ednam, Roxburghshire, left the district under church pressure because of his satirical poetry, pub. The old churchyard; The twa mice, and miscellaneous poems and songs (Kelso, 1862). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 426. [S]

Smith, John Kelday (d. 1889), of Newcastle upon Tyne (born Orkney), bellhanger, local songwriter. Ref Allan, p. 491. [S]

Smith, Margaret (fl. 1890), of St Andrews, Orkney, farmer’s daughter, pub. in magazines as ‘Daisy’, and poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 13 (1890), pp. 33-8. [S] [F]

? Smith,  Mary S. (1822-89), of Cropredy, Oxfordshire, shoemaker’s daughter, became schoolmistress in Carlisle, pub. Poems, By M.S. (1860); Progress, and Other Poems, the later including poems on the social affections and poems on life and behaviour, by M.S. (London and Carlisle, 1873); The Autobiography of Mary Smith, Schoolmistress and Nonconformist. A Fragment of a Life. With Letters from Jane Welsh Carlyle and Thomas Carlyle (1892); Miscellaneous Poems (1892), also wrote about castles; Bodleian. Ref Vincent, p. 208; Reilly (1994), p. 442. [F] [LC 6]

Smith, Robert Archibald (1780-1829) weaver, soldier, music teacher and choir conductor, pub. Anthems (1819), The Scottish Minstrel, 6 vols (1821-4), The Irish Minstrel, 2 vols (1825), An Introduction to Singing (1826), Select Melodies (1827). [S]

Smith, William, the Haddington Cobbler, A Collection of Original Poems (Edinburgh, 1821), Verses composed on the disgraceful traffic at present carried on of selling the newly dead (1829). The Haddington Cobbler Defended; or, The doctors dissected.  By an East Linton Gravedigger. Being a reply to the poems published by the Resurrectionist men (1829); The Haddington Cobbler Dissected Alove, in answer to his objections against dissecting the dead. (it is not clear whether British Heroism, 1815, Johnson, item 846, is by the same William Smith.) [S] [LC 4]

Snell, Henry James, working man of the stained glass works, Cumberland Market, London, pub. Love lies bleeding (London, ?1870), Poems: containing, The three twilights...The shipwreck, and minor poems (London, 1871). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 429.

Soutar, Alexander M. (b. 1846), of Muirdrum, Forfarshire, farmworker, joiner, soldier, pub. Hearth rhymes, with an introductory preface by William Rose (Dundee, 1880). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 445. [S]

Spalding, Colin (b. 1826), of Rattray, Perthshire, cook, valet, hotelier, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 12 (1889), pp. 94-8. [S]

Spence, Charles (1779-1869), of Kinfauns, Perthshire, mason, pub. From the braes of the Carse: poems and songs, ed. by James M. Strachan (Perth, 1898). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 431-2, Bodleian. [S]

Spence, Peter (1806-83), of Brechin, Forfarshire, son of a handloom weaver, grocer, chemist, lived in Perth, Carlisle and Manchester, pub. Poems (written in early life) (London, 1888). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 446; Edwards, 13 (1890), pp. 136-46. [S]

Spence, Thomas (1750-1814), prominent radical linguist and activist, son of a Tyneside net-maker, occasional poet. [LC3]

Spencer, Richard, of Holbeck, Leeds, apprenticed to a brushmaking firm, pub. Field flowers: poems (Batley and Leeds, 1891). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 446.

? Stagg, John (1770-1823), Cumberland poet of peasant life, lost sight in youth, Miscellaneous Poems (1790), Miscellaneous Poems, some of which are in the Cumberland and Scottish dialects (1804, 1805, 1807, 1808), The Minstrel of the North; or, Cumbrian legends (Manchester, 1816), The Cumberland Minstrel (Manchester, 1821), Legendary, gothic and romantic tales, in verse, and other original poems, and translations. By a northern minstrel (Shrewsbury, 1825). Ref DNB, inf. Michael Baron, Johnson, items 850-7.

Stark, William (b. 1857), of Anderson, Glasgow, postal worker, pub poems in newspapers and in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 9 (1886), pp. 232-8. [S]

? Standing, James (1848-78), of Cliviger, near Burnley, bobbin maker from before the age of eight, later teacher, auctioneer and other jobs, learned French and German, pub. Lancashire and Yorkshire Comic, Historic and Poetic Almanack (1873-7), Ref Stansfield, Abraham, ‘Folk Speech of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Border’, Essays and Sketches, being a few selections from the prose writings of twenty years (Manchester: Printed for the Author by the Manchester Scholastic Trading Co., 1897), Hollingworth, pp. 154-5.

Steel or Steele, Andrew (1811-82), of Coldstream, Berwickshire, shoemaker, pub. Poetical works, 2nd edn (Edinburgh, 1863), Poetical productions, 3rd edn (Edinburgh, 1864, 4th edn 1865), Select productions, 5th edn (Edinburgh, 1867), Poetical works (Edinburgh, 1871). Ref Edwards, 3 (1881), pp. 76-80; Edwards, 9 (1886), p. xx; Crockett, pp. 158-62; Reilly (2000), p. 436. [S]

Steel, William, letter carrier, later a concert singer, pub. Scotland’s natural songster: songs and addresses, written and sung by Willliam Steel (Invercargill, 1865). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 436. [S]

Stephens, Charles Taylor (b. 1863), of Liverpool, shoemaker by trade, became rural postman in Cornwall, living in St Ives, pub. The chief of Barat-Anac, and other poems, songs, &c. (St Ives and Penzance, 1862), 36 pp, Morrab Library, Penzance; preface states ‘These poems were not written with any intention to publish them, nor would they appear in print if the writer were able to earn a living at his trade’. Ref Reilly (2000), p. 437; inf. Kaye Kossick. [LC6]

? Stephenson, William (b. 1763), of Newcastle upon Tyne, watchmaker disabled by an accident, schoolmaster, pub. a volume of poems in 1832. Ref Allan, pp. 119-21.

? Stevens, George Alexander (1710-84), lecturer, playwright, pub. Songs, Comic and Satyrical (1772). Ref DNB, EPFTD.

? Stevenson, Edith (‘Edith’), of Edinburgh, pub. The Yetts o’ Muckart: or, the famous pic-nic and the brilliant barn-ball, in hairst, auchteen-hunder an’ seventy-one (Edinburgh, 1872).  Ref Reilly (2000), p. 438. [S] [F]

Stevenson, Jane, widow of a stonemason, pub. Verses (Banff, 1866)  Ref Reilly (2000), p. 438. [S] [F]

Stevenson, John, of Paisley, weaver, appeared in miscellanies. Ref Brown. [S]

Stewart, Alexander (b. 1841), of Galston, Ayrshire, weaver, book-deliverer, city mission worker, pub. Bygone memories, and other poems, with an Introductory Preface by Alexander Macleod (Edinburgh, 1888). Ref Edwards, 10 (1887), pp. 120-9; Reilly (1994), p. 453. [S]

Stewart, Allan (1812-37), of Paisley, drawboy and weaver, pub. posthumous volume, Poetic Remains of the Late Allan Stewart (Paisley, 1838). Ref Brown, Jarndyce, item 1489. [S]

Stewart, James (1801-43), shoemaker of Perth, wrote verse ‘Sketches of Scottish Character’. Ref Douglas, p. 308. [S]

Stewart, James (b. 1841), of Johnstone, Dumfriesshire, farm worker, railwayman, poems in Edwards. Ref  Edwards, 6 (1883), pp. 252-8. [S]

Stewart, Robert (1806-85), of Paisley, weaver, pub. some of his pieces in 1851. Ref Brown. [S]

Stewart, Thomas (b. 1840), ‘Rustic Rhymer’ of Larkhall, Lanarkshire, coalminer. pub. in local press, and a vol of Doric Rhymes (1875). Ref Murdoch, pp. 362-5, [S]

Stewart, William (b. 1835), of Aberlour, shoemaker, shopkeeper, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 12 (1889), pp. 89-94. [S]

Stewart, William (b. 1867), of Waterside, Lochlee, farmworker, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 10 (1887), pp. 139-41. [S]

Stibbons, Frederick, pub. The Poems of a Norfolk Ploughman (1902). Ref inf John Goodridge. [OP]

Still, Peter (1814-48), of Longside, Aberdeenshire, cattle herder, poet, pub. Cottar’s Sunday and Other Poems.  Ref Edwards, 3 (1881), pp. 305-8; Shanks, p. 153-4. [S]

? Still, Peter, poet, son of Peter Still the cattle-herder poet. Ref Edwards, 1. [S]

Story or Storey, Robert (1795-1860), of Wark, Northumberland, worked as gardener, shepherd and schoolteacher, made the acquaintance of John Nicholson, pub. Craven Blossoms (Skipton, 1826, Johnson, item 872); The magic fountain, with other poems (London, 1829); The outlaw, a drama in five acts (London, 1839); Songs and lyrical poems (Liverpool, 1837); Love and Literature: Being the Reminiscences, Literary Opinions and Fugitive Pieces of a Poet in Humble Life (London, 1842), contributed to The Festive Wreath (1842), Poetical Works of Robert Story (London, 1857), includes autobiographical Preface, The lyrical and other minor poems of Robert Story, with a sketch of his life and writings by John James (London and Bradford, 1861). Ref Vicinus (1974), pp. 141, 143, 148-9, 151, 164, 167, 170-1, 173-4, 176, 179, Maidment (1987), pp. 144-5, Harvey, Vincent, p. 97, Johnson, items 872-6, Vincent, p. 208, EPFTD, Crossan, 40n33, Reilly (2000), p. 442. [LC 5]

? Stott, Benjamin, of Manchester, bookbinder and poet, Chartist , referred to in Alexander Wilson’s ‘The Poet’s Corner’, pub. ‘The Songs of the Millions’ in The Northern Star in 1842, Songs for the Millions and Other Poems (London, 1843). Ref Kovalev, pp. 106-9, Scheckner, pp. 305-8, 343, Vincent, p. 124n, 188.

Stott, Maggie (b. 1862), of Montrose, domestic servant. Ref Edwards, 10 (1887), pp. 167-9. [S] [F]

? Stratton, Nicholas, a ‘rustic farmer’s son’ from Huntingdonshire, poet of humble origins, pub. Poems on Various Subjects (1824). Ref Crossan, 37, Powell, item 369.

Struthers, John (1776-1853), shoemaker poet, pub. Poems on various subjects (1801), Anticipation (1803), The Poor Man’s Sabbath (1804), The Peasant’s Death and other poems (1806), The Winter’s Day with other poems (Glasgow, 1811), Poems moral and religious (1814), The Plough and other poems (Glasgow, 1816), An essay on the state of the labouring poor (1816), The Harp of Caledonia (1819), The British Minstrel (1821), The History of Scotland (1827), The Poor Man’s Sabbath and Other Poems (1832), Dychmont: A Poem (Glasgow, 1836). Ref Wilson, I, pp. 540-51, Winks, pp. 314-15, Harvey, Johnson, items 880-2. [S]

? Sutherland, Frank (b, 1844), ‘Uncle Peter’, hairdresser, of Morayshire, pub. Sunny Memories of Morayland. Ref Murdoch, pp. 399-401. [S]

Sutherland, William (b. 1797), a ‘young working class author’ of Langton, Berwickshire, ‘The Langton Bard’, son of a Highland cattleman, joiner, grocer, emigrated to America in 1823, pub. Poems and songs (Haddington: printed for the author, by James Miller, 1821), which includes a lament on the death of Robert Burns and a poem on Allan Ramsay. Ref Edwards, 12 (1889), pp. 166-9; Crocket, pp. 137-8; Johnson, item 887. [S]

Swain, Charles (1801 or 1803-74), dyehouse clark, poet, lithographer, member of the ‘Sun Inn’ group of Manchester poets, pub. Metrical Essays (1827, 1828), Beauties of the Mind, a poetical sketch; with lays, historical and romantic (London, 1831), Art and Fashion, with other sketches, songs and poems (London, 1863), Dryburgh Abbey, and other poems (London and Manchester, 1868). Ref Harland, frontispiece and pp. 217-20, 233, 241-, 244-7, 252, 293-4, 311-12, 323-4, 350-1, 355, 363-4, 422-3, 443, 473, 481-2, Cross, pp. 147-8, Maidment (1987), pp. 121-4, Vicinus (1973), 743, Vicinus (1974), p. 160, Johnson, items 888-9, DNB, EPFTD, X, p. xii, Reilly (2000), p. 446.

? Swain, John (b. 1815), of Haddenly Hall, Holmfirth, Yorkshire, cloth finisher, teacher, inspector of letter carriers, lived at Otley, pub. Cottage carols, and other poems (London, 1861), The tide of even, and other poems, with tales and songs (London and Otley, 1877). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 446.

Swain, Joseph (1761-1796), apprenticed as engraver, hymn-writer, poet. Ref DNB.

Swan, Robert. (b. 1853), of Kirkburn, Peebles, draper, pub. in newspapers and in Edwards. Ref Edwards 10 (1887), pp. 62-6. [S]

Swift, John, of Rochdale, Lance, Private in the Kings Own Light Infantry, served at Waterloo, pub. Reminiscences of the Battle of Waterloo (Rochdale, 1864). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 447.

Syme, James, Chartist, author of ‘Labour Song’ (The Northern Star, 26 December 1840). Ref Maidment (1987), pp. 42-4, Kovalev, pp. 80-1, Scheckner, pp. 309-10, 343.

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Tait, Alexander (fl. 1790), of Paisley, tailor, author of ‘A Ramble Through Paisley’ in his Poems and Songs (Paisley, 1790), wrote poems against Burns (as did Maxwell). Ref Brown, Leonard, pp. 36-7. [S]

Tannahill, Robert (1774-1810), of Paisley, weaver, drowned himself, pub. Poems and songs, chiefly in the Scottish dialect (Paisley, 1815), The soldier’s return...with other poems and songs (Paisley, 1807). Ref Wilson, I, pp. 501-8, Maidment (1983), 85, Johnson, items 334, 892-3, Douglas, pp. 296-9, Brown, Leonard, pp. 38-52 & 373, EPFTD, Miles, II, pp. 73-86. [S]

Tasker, David (b. 1840), of Dundee, mill boy, warper, mill manager, lived in Carlisle, pub. Musings of leisure hours (Carlisle, 1878). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 451, Edwards, 2 (1881), pp. 280-3. [S]

Tate, Matthew (b. 1837), of Benton, Northumberland, miner, poet, pub. Stray Blossoms (1874), Pit life in 1893 (Blyth, 1894), Poems, songs and ballads (1898). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 463, Newcastle Central Library.

Tatersal, Robert, author of The Bricklayer’s Miscellany; or, Poems on Several Subjects (second edition, 1734: BL 1162.k.2). Ref Unwin, pp. 72-3, Røsvig, II, p. 158; Shiach, pp. 53-4, Klaus (1985), pp. 4-7 &14, Lonsdale (1984), pp. 278-80, 844n, Phillips, 213; Harvey, ESTC, Christmas, pp. 110-15. [LC 1]

Tatton, William, working man of Stoke, Devonport, pub. Edwin and Marguerite: a legend and other poems (London and Deveonport, 1860). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 452.

Taylor, David (‘The Saint Ninians Poet’) (1817-76), of Dollar, Clackmannanshire, weaver, moved to Stirlingshire, wrote and set songs, wrote for newspapers, drowned in the river Devon on holiday at Dollar, pub. include Miscellaneous Poems (1827),  Welm and Amelia with other Poems (1830), The poems and songs of David Taylor, with memoir, notes, and glossary by William Harvey (Stirling, 1893). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 453. [S]

Taylor, Ellen, daughter of ‘an indigent cottager’, pub. Poems (Dublin, 1792). Ref Lonsdale (1989), pp. 455-7, Carpenter, p. 473. [I] [F]

Taylor, James (1794-c. 1864), the Royton poet, Lancashire cotton-worker, self-taught, pub. vols. in 1825 and 1830; posthumously pub. Miscellaneous Poems (Oldham: Hurst and Rennie, 1864). Ref inf Bob Heyes.

? Taylor, John, The Water Poet (1580-1653). Ref Southey, pp. 15-87, Craik, II, pp. Unwin, pp. 21-3, Harvey, EPFTD, Christmas, pp. 66-7.

Taylor, John (fl. 1787), stay-maker of Limerick, known as an eccentric. Ref Carpenter, p. 428. [I]

Taylor, John (b. 1839), of Raddery, Ross-shire, orphaned son of a shoemaker, stable boy, merchant’s assistant, gardener, navigator on the Highland railway, took different jobs throughout Scotland before settling in Edinburgh, pub. Poems, chiefly on themes of Scottish interest, with introductory preface by W. Lindsay Alexander (Edinburgh, 1875). Ref Reilly (2000), pp. 453-4. [S]

Taylor, John Kay, self-taught apprentice of Oldham, pub. The Land of Burns and other poems, and The Burial of Burns (Glasgow, 1847). Ref Manchester Public Library copy of the latter.

Taylor, Kirkwood, of Derby, railwayman, pub. “Behold the fowls of the air”: thoughts in blank verse on matters social and religious (Leicester and Wallasey, Cheshire: 1899). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 465.

Taylor, Malcolm (b. 1850), of Dundee, plumber, private secretary, pub. in newspapers & in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 6 (1883), pp. 101-7. [S]

Teenan, Joseph (1830-83), of Edinburgh, tailor, self-educated, lived in London  and East Linton, pub. Song and satire (London, 1876). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 454, Edwards, 2 (1881), pp. 229-33 and 9 (1886), p. xxv. [S] [LC 6]

Teer, John, of Manchester, cotton piecer and poet, pub. Silent Musings (Manchester, 1869). Ref Vincent, p. 125n, Reilly (2000), p. 454.

? Teft, Elizabeth, regarded Duck as a precedent and had ‘want of learning’, pub. Orinthia’s Miscellany (1747). Ref Lonsdale (1989), pp. 217-19. [F]

Telfer, James (1800-62), of Southdean, Roxburghshire, shepherd’s son, and shepherd, later schoolmaster, pub. Border Ballads and Miscellaneous Poems, (1824), dedicated to Hogg. Ref Wilson, II, pp. 217-22, Shanks, p. 141, Johnson, item 897. [S]

Telford, William (b. 1828), of leithom, drain digger, emigrated to Canada as a farmer, pub. a vol of selected poems. Ref Crockett, pp. 245-7. [S]

Tennant, Robert (1830-79), of Airdrie, Lanarkshire, orphaned handloom weaver, postal messenger, letter-carrier, pub. Wayside musings (Airdire, 1872). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 455; Murdoch, pp. 221-6. [S]

? Thistlethwaite, James, Chatterton’s friend, author of The Prediction of Liberty (1776, Dobell 1802, BL 11630.e.16(5)); The Consultation (Bristol, 1774, 1775, BL; Corruption (1780, BL Ref Dobell, ESTC.

? Thom, Robert William (1816-?1890), of Annan, Dumfriesshire, surgeon’s son, draper in Blackburn, lived later in Glasgow, pub. Poems (Dudley, ?1860), Coventry poems (Coventry, ?1860), Dudley poems (Dudley, c. 1865), The courtship and wedding of Jock o’ the Knowe, and other poems, 2nd edn (Glasgow, 1878), The epochs: a poem (Glasgow, 1884), Poems (Glasgow, 1880), Poems and ballads (Scotch and English) (Glasgow, 1886). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 467, Reilly (2000), p. 458. [S]

Thom, William (?1799-1848), of Aberdeen, ‘The Inverurie Poet’, weaver, later lived in London and Dundee, pub. ‘A Chieftain Unknown to the Queen,’ The Northern Star, September 1842; Rhymes and Recollections of a Handloom Weaver (London and Aberdeen, 1844). Ref Wilson, II, pp. 202-6, Shiach, pp. 36, 67-70, Maidment (1983), 84-5, Maidment (1987), pp. 22 [image], 32-6, 63-5, Scheckner, pp. 311-12, 343, Vincent, p. 151, Ashton & Roberts, ch. 3, pp. 46-57; NCSTC, EPFTD, Miles, III, p. 249, Murdoch, p. 81, Zlotnick, p. 176. [LC 5] [S]

Thomas, David (1760?-1822) Welsh poet and weaver; several titles in Welsh; [DNB]. [W]

? Thomas, Frederick, hatter, pub. Humorous and other poetic pictures: legends and stories of Devon (London and Plymouth, 1883). Ref Reilly (1994), p.467.

? Thomason, Mary, (1863-1937), dialect poet, teacher at a Wesleyan primary school in Leigh, her Warp and Weft: Cuts from a Lancashire Loom pub. posthumously (Leigh 1938). Ref Hollingworth, p. 155. [OP] [F]

? Thompson, William Gill (1796-1844), of Newcastle, printer, journalist and poet, pub. The Coral Wreath and Other Poems (1821). Ref Welford, III, pp. 514-16.

Thomson, David (1806-70), of Roseneath, Dumbartonshire, shepherd’s son, rural keeper, pub. Musings among the heather: being poems chiefly in the Scottish dialect, by the late David Thomson, arranged and edited (Edinburgh. 1881).  Ref Reilly (2000), p. 459; Edwards, 2 (1881), pp. 112-17. [S] [LC 6]

Thom[p]son, James (1763-1832), weaver of Kenleith, pub. Poems in the Scottish Dialect (Edinburgh, 1801); Poems, chiefly in the Scottish dialect (Leith, 1819); A Poem, chiefly in the Scottish dialect, on raising and selling the dead ... (Leith, 1821). Ref Johnson, items 905-6. [S]

Thomson, James (1827-88), of Bowden, herder then wood turner, poems include ‘Hogmanay’, ‘Hairst’, pub. Doric lays and lyrics (Edinburgh, 1870; 2nd enlarged edn Glasgow, 1884). Ref Edwards, 10 (1887), pp. 266-73 and 12 (1889), p. xxiii; Douglas, pp. 256-7, 313, Reilly (2000), p. 460. [S] [LC 6]

? Thomson, James (1834-82), (‘B.V.’), of Port Glasgow, orphaned son of a merchant ship’s officer and a dressmaker, author of The City of Dreadful Night (1880). Ref Tom Leonard, Places of the mind: The Life and Work of James Thomson (‘B.V.’) (London: Cape, 1993), Leonard, pp. 281-95, EPFTD, Miles, V, p. 327, Ricks, pp. 442-56. Ref Reilly (1994), p. 470. [S] [LC 6]

Thomson, James (b. 1835 [but Edwards gives 1825]), of Rothes, Speyside, Morayshire, crofter’s son, herder, gardener, pub. The captive chief: a tale of Flodden Field, and other poems, 2nd edn (Edinburgh, 1871), Northumbria; The captive chief, and other poems, 3rd edn (Alnwick, 1881). Ref Edwards, 3 (1881), pp. 380-4; Reilly (2000), p. 460; Murdoch, pp. 260-2. [S]

Thomson, Neil (b. 1823), of Glasgow, ‘The Hyde Park Foundry Man’ tinsmith, sodleir, prison warder, pub. poems in newspapers and in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 9 (1886), pp. 388-94. [S]

Thomson, Robert Burns (1817-87), weaver then mill manager, grandson of Robert Burns, pub. poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 7 (1884), pp. 151-60 and 12 (1889), p. xvi; Leonard, p. 235. [S]

Thomson, Samuel (1766-1816), Ulster weaver poet. Ref Carpenter, p. 482. [I]

Thomson, Thomas (b. 1848), of Edinburgh, compositor, reporter, printer’s reader, prose writer and critic, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 6 (1883), pp. 78-82. [S]

Thomson, William (‘Theta’) (1797-1887), of Kennoway, Fife, worked in linen manufacture, grocer and general merchant, postmaster at Kennoway, pub. Verses (1866), Poetical recreations (Cupar, 1877). Ref Edwards, 1 (1880) and 12 (1889), p. xi; Reilly (2000), p. 460. [S]

? Thomson, William (1860-83), of Glasgow, tailor, contributor to newspapers and periodicals, pub. Leddy May, and other poems (Glasgow, 1883). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 471, Edwards, 2 (1881), pp. 156-7 and 9 (1886), p. xxv. [S]

? Threlfall, Jennette (1822-80), daughter of a wine merchant, orphaned, seriously injured late in life, pub. Sunshine and shadow: poems by Jennette Threlfall, with introduction (London 1873)  Ref Reilly (2000), pp. 461-2. [F]

Todd, Maggie (b. 1866), of Campertown, Dundee, miller’s daughter, pub. in People‘s Journal and in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 13 (1890), pp. 33-8. [S] [F]

Towers, Walter (b. 1841), of Carronshore, Stirlingshire, pattern-maker, songwriter, pub. Poems, song and ballads (Glasgow, 1885). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 476. [S]

? Townsend, David (b. 1807), of Kettering, Northants., singer-songwriter and violinist on the streets of Kettering, pub. The gipsies of Northamptonshire: their manner of life, festive amusements, and fortune telling, fifty years ago [poems] (Kettering, 1877), BL; Heroes of Kettering, and other records (Kettering, 1892). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 477, Reilly (2000), p. 465.

? Train, Joseph (1779-1852), of Sorn, Ayrshire, apprentice, militiaman, manufacturing agent, exciseman, poet, pub. Poetical Reveries (1806), Strains of the Mountain (1814), and other works including historical writings. Ref: Wilson, II, pp. 30-32, [S]

Turnbull, Gavin, of Kilmarmock, weaver, of Hawick, Kilmarnock, pub. Poetical Essays (Glasgow, 1788, BL 1466.d.26), Poems (1794, BL 11632.b.53). Ref Eyre-Todd. [S]

Tweedale, Robert (b. 1832), of Ballymoney, Country Down, Johnstone and Paisley, shoemaker, son of an Irish agricultural labourer, author of ‘Co-Operation: The Brotherhood of Man’ in Brown, II, pp. 355-7. Ref Leonard, pp. 334-6. [I] [S]

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Usher, John (1810-29), Lammermoor sheep-herder, attended Edinburgh University o become a minister, but died before he had qualified, author of ‘Lamermoor’, pub. in Crockett. ref Crockett, pp. 208-9. [S]

A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  Y

? Varley, Isabella, later Banks (1821-81), member of the Lancashire Literary Association (formed from the ‘Sun Inn’ group of Manchester poets), novelist and poet, author of The Manchester Man, a popular novel. Ref Harland, pp. 300, 364-5, 433-4, 448-9, 484-5, Vicinus (1974), p. 160. [F]

Vaughan, Thomas (‘The Hereford Poet’) (1813-63), tailor, of Hereford, pub. Morah; or the Indian wife: a moral tale; also, Songs and ballads; and, The apparition: a tale of Hereford, founded upon fact (Hereford, 1863). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 474.

? Vedder, David (1790-1854), of Burness, Orkney, orphan, cabin boy, ship’s captain, pub. The Covenanter’s Communion and Other Poems (1826), Orcadian Sketches [prose and verse] (1832), Poems—Legendary, Lyrical and Descriptive (1842), and others. Ref Wilson, II, pp. 117-21. [S]

? Verney, Thomas, author of A copy of verses humbly presented to all my worthy masters and mistresses in the ward of Castle-Baynard, by Thomas Verney, Bell-man (1742), BL 1870.d.1(64). Ref ESTC.

? Vernon, Henry, of Alnwick, Northumberland, pub. Thoughts of leisure hours: poems, songs &c. &c. (Edinburgh, 1871). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 475.

Vernon, James, of London, Chartist, worker-poet, pub. in The Northern Star and in separate booklets, including The Afflicted Muse (South Molton, n.p.). Ref Kovalev, p. 99, Scheckner, pp. 313, 343.

Vernon, William, author of ‘A Journey into Wales’, Gents. Mag. May 1757; Poems on Several Occasions by William Vernon, a Private Soldier in the Buffs (1758: BL Ref Gents. Mag. May 1757; BL; Staffs. Poets, pp. 109-11. [LC 2]

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Waddell, James (fl. 1809), shoemaker ‘poet laureate of Plessy and the neighbouring villages’, pub. The Poetical Works of James Waddell (Morpeth, 1809). Ref Iolo A. Williams, By-Ways Round Helicon: A Kind of Anthology (London: Heinemann, 1922), p. 137.

Waddington, James (1829-61), b. Horton, nr. Bradford, lived at Saltaire, wool-sorter, ?power-loom weaver, author of Flowers of the glen: the poetical remains of James Waddington, ed. by Eliza Craven Green (Bradford, 1862). Ref Maidment (1987), pp. 187, 196-7; Vicinus (1974), pp. 161, 171, Reilly (2000), p. 479.

Wakefield, George (1821-88), of Uttoxeter, carpenter’s son, shoemaker, railway night watchman and porter at Uttoxeter station, pub. Poems on various subjects (1854); The River Dove and Human Life Compared (1856). Ref Staffs. Poets, pp. 173-5.

Walker, John, of Liverpool, shoemaker poet, pub. A Descriptive Poem On The Town And Trade Of Liverpool (1789). Ref Harvey. (?Johnson, item 932, may refer.) [LC 3]

Walker, John (b. c . 1747), farm labourer, pub. Poems in English, Scotch and Gaelic (Glasgow, 1817). Ref Johnson, item 931. [S]

Walker, John (b. 1845), of Blackburn, son of a working-man, largely self-taught, pupil-teacher, warehouseman, journalist. Ref Hull, pp. 272-87.

Walker, John (b. 1857), of Rothesay, Glasgow factory worker, artist, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 10 (1887), pp. 102-9. [S]

Walker, John (1861-1932), of Wythburn, Thirlmere, Cumberland, worked in wool manufacture from an early age, wrote for newspapers, pub. Hubert and Emmeline: poems on nature, and other poems (Edinburgh, 1887). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 493.

Walker, William, ‘Bill Stumps’ (b. 1830), cattle-herder, quarryman, pub. poems in the People’s Journal. Ref Edwards, 3 (1881), pp. 102-6. [S]

Wall, John, late nineteenth-century Bristol shoemaker poet. Ref inf Madge Dresser, UWE.

? Wallace, Alexander (b. 1816), of Paisley, draw boy, weaver’s apprentice, later university educated temperance writer and preacher, pub. Poems and sketches (Glasgow, London and Edinburgh, 1862). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 482. [S]

Wallace, Andrew (b. 1835), of Leslie, Fife, son of stonemason, clerk, emigrated to Canada, returned to Scotland, railway cashier, inspector of the poor, pub. Essays, sketches and poems (London and Glasgow, 1869). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 482. [S]

Wallace, Edgar (1873-1932),  of Greenwich, orphan, private soldier, journalist, pub. The Mission that failed: a tale of the raid, & other poems (Cape Town, 1898). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 495.

Wallace, George (b. c. 1845), ‘The Spring Poet’, cooper, soft-goods manufacturer, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 14 (1891), pp. 354-8. [S]

Waller, John Rowell (b. 1854), of Cragg Head, County Durham, joiner, ironmonger, engineering worker, lived at Wallsend, pub. Unstrung links: dropped from the disjointed chain of a toiling life, as the ringing chorus of nature’s music beat time on the anvil of a responding heart (Darlington, 1878); Ramblings and Musings (1886); Wayside Flowers: being, The Battle of Otterburn and other poems (Bedlington, 1881); Woodland and shingle: poems and songs (Darlington, 1883), and other volumes. Ref Reilly (2000), p. 483; Reilly (1994), p. 495; Newcastle Lit & Phil.

Walmesley, Luke Slater (b. 1841), of Blackburn, son of a factory ‘tackler’, schoolmate of Henry Yates, member of the Billington circle of poets, and of the Mechanics’s Institute. Ref Hull, pp. 238-45.

Walsh, John (b. 1848), of Blackburn, printer’s devil, weaver, dialect and local poet. Ref Hull, pp. 302-14.

? Wanless, Andrew (b. 1824), of Longformacus, Lammermoor, bookbinder, emigrated to Canada, pub. several vols of poetry and Sketches and Anecdotes (1891), dubbed the ‘Burns of the United States’. Ref Crockett, pp. 228-36. [S]

Ward, Edward, ‘Ned’ (1667-1740), EPFTD, Christmas, p. 67. [LC 1]

? Ward, John (fl. 1642-3), puritan trooper poet.

Ward, Richard (b. 1863), of Paisley, miner, emigrated to America but returned to Paisley, pub. pieces in papers. Ref Brown. [S]

Wardrop, Alexander (b. 1850), of Whitburn, Linlithgowshire, weaver’s son, tailor, pub. Johnnie Mathison’s courtship and marriage with, Poems and songs (Coatbridge, 1881), Mid-Cauther Fair: a dramatic pastoral, with other poems, songs, and prose sketches (Glasgow, 1887). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 498. [S]

Waters, Daniel (b. 1838), of Wick, house painter, pub. in Glasgow magazines, 3 poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 2 (1881), pp. 253-6. [S]

? Watkins, John (1792-1831), popular Chartist poet and lecturer, poems included ‘The Golden Age’. Ref Kovalev, pp. 82-6, Scheckner, pp. 314-17, 344.

Watson, Alexander (1744-1831), of Aberdeen, tailor, author of ‘The Kail Brose of Auld Scotland’ and ‘The Wee Wifukie’. Ref Eyre-Todd, p. 46. [S]

Watson, George (b. 1846) of Dundee, rope-spinner (‘The Roper Bard’), pub. Love’s task: poems and songs, 2nd ser (Dundee, 1899). Ref Edwards, 14 (1891), pp. 36-41; Reilly (1994), p. 501. [S]

Watson, Jessie J. Simpson (b. 1854), of Greenock, miller’s daughter, pub. poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 3 (1881), pp. 262-5. [S] [F]

? Watson, John (1793-1878), farmer and poet, pub. Samples in common sense, in verse, by a Forfarshire farmer (Brechin, 1875). Ref Shanks, pp. 156-8, Reilly (2000), p. 486 [S]

Watson, Richard (1833-1918), lead miner’s son, of Middleton-in-Teesdale, iron ore miner, pub. Poems (1862), revised and expanded 1884 (Poetical Works), reprinted 1930, Egremont Castle, and miscellaneous poems (Whitehaven , 1868). Ref Around the Hollow Hills (1978), a biography of Watson; Rhymes of a Rustic Bard: The Poems and Songs of Richard Watson (Barnard Castle: The Teesdale Mercury, 1979); this edition adds the substantial ‘Middleton-in-Teesdale Fair’; Reilly (2000), p. 486; Reilly (1994), p. 501. [LC 6]

Watson, Thomas,  gardener of Lasswade, Midlothian, pub. A Collection of Poems (1835). Ref ?Wilson, II, p. 540. [LC 5] [S]

Watson, Thomas (1807-75), b. Arbroath, Angus, worked as a weaver then became a house painter, contributed to many Scottish periodicals, pub. Homely pearls at random strung: poems, songs, and sketches (Edinburgh and Arbroath, 1873). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 487, Edwards, 2 (1881), pp. 220-4. [S]

Watson, Walter (1780-1854), of Chryston, Lanarkshire, cowherd, soldier, weaver, pub. vols of poems and songs in 1808, 1823, 1843; selected works with a memoir by Hugh McDonald (?1853). Ref Wilson, II, pp. 33-5. [S]

Watson, William (fl. 1820-40), of Newcastle upon Tyne, author of the songs ‘Dance to thy Daddy’, ‘Thumping luck to yon Town’, ‘Newcassel Races’ and ‘Newcastle Landlords 1834’. Ref Allan, pp. 204-14.

Watt, Alexander (b. 1841), of East Kilbride, weaver, slater, day-labourer, from a family of rhymers, pub. in local pres including prize poem on Janet Hamilton. Ref Murdoch, pp. 366-9; Edwards, 3 (1881), pp. 136-41. [S]

Watt, James E (b. 1839), of Montrose, weaver, pub. Poetical sketches of Scottish life and character (Dundee, 1880). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 503, Murdoch, pp. 316-20. [S]

Watt, Walter (b. 1826), of Edinburgh, tobacco-worker, pub. Sketches in prose and poetry (Glasgow, 1881). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 503. [S]

Watt, William (1792-1859), ‘peasant poet and precentor’ (Edwards), of West Linton, Peebleshire, herder, weaver, singer, pub. vol. of songs in 1835, and Comus and Cupid (1844); Poems on Sacred and Other Subjects (1860). Ref inf Kaye Kossick, Edwards, 2 (1881), pp. 51-5, Murdoch, pp. 144-6. [LC 5] [S]

Watts, John George, of London, Billingsgate fish market porter, pub. Fun, feeling, and fancy: being a series of lays and lyrics (London, 1861), The blacksmith‘s daughter, and other poems (London, 1874), A lay of a Cannibal Island And other Poems, Gay and grave (London: Judd and Co. Ltd,  1887). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 487; Reilly (1994), p. 503.

Watts, Thomas (1845-87), of Wexford, tailor, pub. Woodland echoes (Kelso, 1880). Ref Edwards, 3 (1881), pp. 70-76 and 12 (1889), pp. xxi-xxii; Crocket, pp. 190-7; Reilly (1994), p. 504. [I] [S]

Waugh, Edwin (1817-90), hugely successful Lancashire dialect poet, son of a Rochdale shoemaker, pub. A Ramble from Bury to Rochdale (Manchester, 1853), Sketches of Lancashire Life and Localities (Manchester, 1855), Come whoam to thy Childer an me (Manchester, 1856), Chirrup [a song] (Manchester, 1858), Poems and Lancashire Songs (Manchester, 1859), Over the Sands to the Lakes (Manchester, 1860), The Birtle Carter’s tale about Owd Bodle (Manchester, 1861), The Goblin’s Grave (Manchester, 1861), Rambles in the Lake Country and Its Borders (Manchester, 1861), Lancashire Songs (Manchester, 1863), Fourteen days in Scotland... (Manchester, 1864), Tufts of Heather, from the Lancashire Moors (Manchester, 1864), Besom Ben (Manchester, 1865), The Owd Bodle (Manchester, 1865), What ails theo, my son Robin (Manchester, 1865), Ben an’ th’ Bantam (Manchester, 1866), Poesies from a Country Garden: selections from the works, 2 vols (Manchester, 1866), Prince’s Theatre...The Grand Christmas Pantomime (Manchester, 1866), The Birthplace of Tim Bobbin (Mancester, 1867), Home-Life of the Lancashire Factory Folk During the Cotton Famine (Manchester, 1867), The Owd Blanket (Manchester, 1867), Dules-gate; or a Frish through Lancashire Clough (Manchester, 1868), Sneck-Bant; or th’ owd Tow Bar (Manchester, 1868), A Guide to Castletown... (Manchester, 1869), Irish Sketches (Manchester, 1869), Johnny O’Wobbler’s an’ th’ Two Wheeled Dragon (Manchester, 1869), Lancashire Sketches (Manchester, 1869), An Old Nest (Manchester, 1869), Snowed-up (Manchester, 1869), Rambles and Reveries (Manchester, 1872), Jarnock (or, the Bold Trencherman) (Manchester, 1873), The Old Coal Men (Manchester, 1873), Old cronies, or Wassail in a country inn (Manchester, 1875), The Hermit Cobbler (Manchester, 1878), Around the Yule Log (Manchester, 1879), In the Lake Country (Manchester, 1880), Waugh’s Complete Works, 10 vols. (Manchester, 1881), Fireside Tales (Manchester, 1885), The Chimney Corner (Manchester, 1892). Ref Harland, pp. 316-17, 328-9, 343-4, 372-4, 408-10, 503-4, 529-33, Ashraf (1978), I, p. 26; Cross, pp. 161-3, Vicinus (1973), 750-3, Vicinus (1974), pp. 167, 189, Maidment (1987), pp. 249-53, 350-2, 366-8, Hollingworth, p. 155 [has b/w photograph], Zlotnick, pp. 196-207; Goodridge (1999), item 124, EPFTD, Miles, X, p. vi, Reilly (2000), pp. 487-8; Reilly (1994), pp. 504-5. [LC 5]

Webb, John (‘Kenrick Prescott’), weaver of Haverhill, Suffolk, pub. Mildenhall (1771), Poems (1772), Haverhill, a Descriptive Poem and Other Poems (London: printed for the author and sold by J. Nunn, 1810), pp. xxiv, 119, includes subscription list with numerous local residents, ‘poems by a journeyman weaver, born in the vale of obscurity...The poem is in the form of a narrative saga, with numerous direct or oblique references to local people, places, and events. As poetry it probably has little merit: as an illustration of working-class emancipation it may have rather more’ (John Drury Rare Books catalogue 104, 2000-2001, item 149). Ref NCSTC, NLS, BL, Bod, Cranbrook, p. 243.

? Webbe, Cornelius, author of Summer (BL Ref Cross, p. 133, EPFTD.

Webber, James B, of Melrose, pub. Rambles around the Eildons (Hawick, 1883, 2nd edn 1895). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 506. [S]

? Webber, John L. (‘The Dartmoor Poet’), pub. Poems on Widecombe-in-the-Moor and neighbourhood (Devonport, c. 1876). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 488.

? Webster, Ann, blind poet, pub Solitary Musings (London, 1825), BL Ref MacDonald Shaw, pp. 95-6, Jackson (1993), p. 363. [F]

Webster, David (1787-1837), of Paisley, weaver, pub. an Ode to the memory of Tannahill (1828); Original Scottish Poems; Humorous and Satirical (Paisley, 1824), Original Scottish Rhymes with Humorous and Satirical Songs (Paisley, 1835), pamphlet: An Address to Fame, or Hints on the Improvement of Weaving, newspaper pubs. Ref Wilson, II, pp. 540-1, Douglas, p. 304, Brown, Leonard, pp. 92-102, NCSTC. [S]

Webster, George (b. 1846), of Stuartfield, Aberdeenshire, herd lad, ploughman, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 10 (1887), pp. 327-31. [S]

Wedderburn, Alexander (1836), of Aberdeenshire, farm labourer, ?shoemaker, pub. in the anthology, Poems by the People. Ref  Edwards, 6 (1883), pp. 238-41. [S]

Weekes, James Eyre (fl. 1745-56), shoemaker poet, of Dublin, pub. Poems on Several Occasions (Dublin, 1743), The Cobler’s Poem. To A Certain Noble Peer, Occasioned by the Bricklayer’s Poem (Dublin, 1745), The Resurrection (Dublin, 1745), The amazon, or female courage vindicated (Dublin, 1745), Rebellion. A poem (Dublin, 1745), A Rhapsody on the stage or, the art of playing. In imitation of Horace’s Art of Poetry (1746), The gentlemen’s hourglass, or an introduction to chronology (1750), A new geography of Ireland (1752), The Young Grammarian’s Magazine of Words (1753), Solomon’s Temple, an oratorio (1753). Ref Christmas, pp. 134-6. [LC 2] [I]

Weir, Daniel (1796-1831), of Greenock, of humbleparentage and limited education, bookseller, pub. poems in his edited collections The National Minstrel, The Sacred Lyre and Lyrical Gems. Ref Wilson, II, pp. 155-7. [S]

Welsh, James C., pub. Songs of a Miner (Herbert Jenkins, 1917) 125pp. Ref <> [OP]

? Welsh, William, Peebleshire Cottar of Romanno Bridge, pub. Poetical and prose works, new enlarged edition (Edinburgh, 1856, 3rd ed Edinburgh, 1875). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 489. [S]

? West, Jane (1758-1852), farmer’s wife, self-taught poet, patronised by Percy, author of Miscellaneous Poetry (London, 1786) and numerous other works. Ref Rizzo, 243, Jackson, pp. 364-5, Lonsdale (1989), pp. 379-85. [F]

? Westbury, Eliza (1808-28), of Hackleton, Northamptonshire, Hymns; by a Northamptonshire village female. To which is added, a short account of her life (Northampton, 1828). Johnson, item 957. [F]

? Westray, C., Chartist poet. Ref Kovalev, pp. 100-1, Scheckner, pp. 318-19.

Whalley, Robert West (b. 1848), of Blackburn, weaver from age 10, overlooker, local and dialect poet. Ref Hull, pp. 290-302.

Wheatley, Phillis (1753?-1784), slave, author of Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral (1773; Dobell 2004-5). Ref Gents. Mag. XLIII (1773) p. 226; Lonsdale (1984), pp. 616, 851; ESTC; TLS, 13 June 1986, p. 649; Dobell, Jackson (1993), pp. 366-9. [F]

Wheeler, James, The Rose of Sharon: a Poem by James Wheeler, a Labouring Man (London, 1795), a ‘dire volume’ posthumously published to raise money for widow. Ref inf Tim Burke.

Wheeler, Thomas Martin, of London, woolcomber, Chartist, poet and novelist. Ref Ashraf 919787), I, p. 25; Kovalev, pp. 102-3, Scheckner, pp. 320-1, 344-5.

Whitaker, William (fl. 1870-82), of Blackburn, painter, dialect and local poet. Ref Hull, pp. 205-13.

? White, Henry Kirke, Nottingham butcher’s son, prodigy. Ref Unwin, pp. 118-19, Maidment (1983), 84, Richardson, pp. 257-8, Goodridge (1999), item 125, Vincent, pp. 145-7, EPFTD, Miles, X, p. 81.

? White, Robert (1802-74), farmer’s son of Roxburghshire, poet and antiquarian, pub. The Wind. A Poem (1853), England. A Poem (1856). Ref Wilson, II, pp. 257-60, Welford, III, 604-9. (Johnson, item 962 may relate.) [S]

? White, Walter (1811-93), of Reading, upholsterer, pub. The prisoner and his dream: a ballad (?1885). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 510.

Whitehead, Harry Buckley (1890-1966), of Diggle, Oldham, dialect poet, millworker from age 13 to retirement, pub. Rhymes of a Village Poet (1963). Ref Hollingworth, p. 156.

Whitehead, John (1797-1879), of Duns, shoemaker, pub. in the newspapers. Ref Crockett, pp. 131-2. [S]

? Whittell, Thomas (1683-1736), of Northumberland, ‘The Licentious Poet’, miller and humorous poet, pub. Poetical Works (1815). Ref Welford, III, 613-15.

Whitmore, William, working-class Chartist poet, correspondent of Leatherland. Ref Ashton & Roberts, p. 62.

Wickenden, William S., farm labourer of Etloe in the Forest of Dean, ‘The Bard of the Forest’, ‘as little blessed by education a fortune’, friend and neighbour of Edward Jenner, poet and novelist, pub. Count Glarus, Of Switzerland. Interspersed with some Pieces of Poetry (Gloucester, 1819), Bleddyn: a Welch national tale (London: Baldwin, Cradock and Joy, 1821, two edns), Prose and poetry of the Bard of the Forest (Cambridge: Harwood & Hall, 1825). Ref Bob Heyes; James Burmester Catalogue 47, items 168-9, 254.

? Wight, William, Cottage Poems (Edinburgh: James Ballantyne & Co, 1820). Ref information of Bob Heyes; Jackson (1985). [S]

? Wightman, Margaret Theresa, born in Ireland, lived in Dundee, mantle and millinery shopworker, pub. The Faithful Shepherd, and other poems (Edinburgh, 1876). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 495. [I] [S] [F]

? Wildman, Abraham, mentioned by Ashraf, nothing further known. Ref Ashraf (1978), I, p. 37.

Will, Charles (b. 1861), of Methlie, Aberdeenshire, asylum attendant, police officer, pub in newspapers and in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 9 (1886), pp. 365-8. [S]

Williams, Alfred (1877-1930), self-taught folklorist and poet, author of Songs in Wiltshire (1909), Poems in Wiltshire (1911), Nature and other Poems (1912), and Cor Cordium (1913), Life in a Railway Factory (1915) Folk Songs of the Upper Thames (1923), Selected Poems (1926). Ref Unwin, pp. 165-89, Neil Philip, Between Earth and Sky (1984), p. 247n28; DNB Missing Persons. [OP]

? Williams, David (d. 1794) Welsh hymn writer and tailor. [W]

Williams, E., working man of Bristol, pub. The city at night, and other poems (London, 1864). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 497.

Williams, Edward (‘Iolo Morganwg’) (1746-1826). [LC 3] [W]

Williams, John (1808-66), of Lecha, Cornwall, miner, self-taught village schoolmaster, clerk, pub. Miscellaneous Poems (1859); Poems by the late John Williams, ed. by his son, Thomas Williams (London 1873).  Ref Reilly (2000), p. 498. [LC 5]

Williams, William (1801-69), Welsh poet and weaver. Ref DNB. [W]

Williamson, Effie (1815-82), of Selkirk, later a Galashiels weaver, five poems in Edwards; pub. The tangled web: poems and hymns (Edinburgh and Galashiels, 1883). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 515, Edwards, 2 (1881), pp. 304-8. [S] [F]

Williamson, George Joseph (b. 1816), of Rochester, Kent, fisherman’s son, charity school, errand boy, fisherman, Wesleyan Sunday school teacher, pub. The ship’s career, and other poems (London, 1860, seven edns to 1874).  Ref Reilly (2000), p. 499.

Willis, Matthew, farm labourer, The Mountain Minstrel; Or, Effusions of Retirement. Poems (York, 1834). Ref Johnson, item 972.

Wills, Ruth (fl. 1861-8), of Leicester, daughter of a soldier, educated dame school, orphaned at seven, working in warehouses from eight, pub. Lays of Lowly Life (1861, second series 1868), both in Bodleian. Ref ABC, pp. 577-80, Reilly (2000), p. 500. [F] [LC 6]

Wilson, Alexander (1766-1813), of Paisley, author of Lochwinnoch, weaver, pedlar and packman, later eminent American ornithologist, Poems (Paisley 1790), Poems: Humorous, Satirical, and Serious (1791), The Shark or Land Mills Detected [political satire] (1793), Poems chiefly in the Scottish dialect (London, 1816), American Ornithology (from 1808). Ref Wilson, I, pp. 418-27, Johnson, items 974-6, Brown, Leonard, pp. 8-32 & 373, EPFTD. [LC 3] [S]

Wilson, Alexander (1804-46), of the Manchester ‘Sun Inn’ poets group, youngest of Michael Wilson’s seven sons, author of dialect poems and ‘The Poet’s Corner’ (The Festive Wreath, 1843), and famed for ‘Johnny Green’. Ref Maidment (1987), pp. 163-6, Ref Vicinus (1969), 35-6, Vicinus (1973), 746, Vicinus (1974), p. 160, Hollingworth, p. 156, EPFTD.

? Wilson, Alexander Stephen, of Rayne, Aberdeenshire, son of tenant farmer, land surveyor, engineering, assisted Charles Darwin, wrote on physics, pub. A creed of to-morrow (London, 1872); Songs and poems (Edinburgh, 1884); The lyric of A hopeless love (London, 1888). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 501; Reilly (1994), p. 517. [S]

Wilson, Anne, author of Teisa: A Descriptive Poem of the River Teese, Its Towns and Antiquities. By Anne Wilson (Newcastle upon Tyne: Printed for the Author, 1778), describes herself as poor and living in rented accommodation. Ref Lonsdale (1989), pp. 354-5, Jackson, p. 377. [F] [LC 2]

Wilson, Daniel (1801-81), of Pineberry Hill, Halifax, self-taught, preacher, bookseller, pub. Justice and mercy: a sacred poem (Halifax, 1883), Ref Reilly (1994), p. 517.

Wilson, Gavin (fl. 1780-90), shoemaker poet, pub. A Collection of Masonic Songs and entertaining anecdotes, for the use of all lodges (Edinburgh, 1788), Advertisement of thanks, in verse (Edinburgh, 1780?, 1789, 1790). Ref Winks, p. 313. [LC 3] [S]

Wilson, Hugh C. (‘Cowper Spearpoint’) (b. ?1845), of Cummock, Atrshire, herdsman, woodman, bailiff in Beckenham, Kent, pub. The rustic harp: a collection of poems, songs, etc., English and Scotch (Bournemouth, 1874). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 501, Murdoch, pp. 406-8. [S]

Wilson, Joe (1841-72), of Newcastle upon Tyne, son of a cabinet maker and a bonnet-maker, apprentice printer, publisher, entertainer, publican; a ‘traditional working class songwriter’. Ref Allan, pp. 473-82, Vicinus (1974), p. 144. [LC 6]

Wilson, Michael (1763-1840), son of a handloom weaver, printer and furniture-broker, radical, dialect poet (as were his sons Thomas and Alexander), J. Harland (ed), The Songs of the Wilsons (1865, 1866). Ref Hollingworth, p. 156.

Wilson, Thomas (1773-1858), of Gateshead, poet, son of a miner, sent down the pit at eight as a trapper boy, later a merchant, schoolmaster and alderman, wrote The Pitman’s Pay in miner’s patois, first pub. in Mitchell’s ‘Newcastle Magazine’ in 1826, 1828, and 1830, reprinted by G. Watson of Gateshead, ‘but this incorrect edition was soon out of print’. Other poems were pub. in the Tyne Mercury, some reissued with notes by John Sykes, compiler of ‘Local Records.’ A collective edition of Wilson’s works, The Pitman’s Pay and Other Poems was pub. in 1843, reprinted 1872, with some additional poems and notes by the author, with a portrait and memoir’ (KK/DNB). Ref Allan, pp. 43, 258-77, Welford, III, pp. 650-3, Klaus (1985), pp. 72-4, DNB. [LC 5]

? Wilson, Thomas, of Leeds, Chartist, poet. Ref Kovalev, p. 110, Scheckner, pp. 322, 345.

Wilson, Thomas (d. 1852), dealer in smallware, son of Michael Wilson, dialect poet. Ref Hollingworth, p. 156.

Wilson, William (b. 1801), of Creiff, cowherd, cloth-lapper, journalist, poems in Edwards, devised ‘Poets and Poetry of Scotland’, pub. by his sone James grant Wilson, in 1877. Ref Edwards, 13 (1890), pp. 223-31. [S]

Wilson, William (1817-50), weaver, of Paisley, pub. 12-page collection, Poetical Pieces Composed by a Young Author (Paisley, 1842). Ref Leonard, p. 118. [S]

Wilson, William (b. 1830), blacksmith, of Burntisland, pub. Echoes of the Anvil: Songs and Poems (Edinburgh, 1866, 1885). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 519. [S]

Wingate, David (1828-92), of Cowglen, Renfrewshire, miner from the age of nine, later colliery manager, pub Annie Weir and Other Poems (Edinburgh, 1866), Poems and Songs, 2nd edn (London and Edinburgh, 1863; Glasgow, 1883), Lily Neil: a poem (Edinburgh, 1879). Ref Wilson, II, pp. 459-65, Ashraf (1975), pp. 242-3, Klaus (1985), pp. 74-5, 76, Leonard, pp. 241-60, Reilly (2000), pp. 503-4, Reilly (1994), pp. 519-20, Edwards, 2 (1881), pp. 283-9; see also John Macleay Peacock, ‘To David Wingate, the Collier Poet’, in his Poems (1880), pp. 101-3; Edwards, 13 (1890), p. 84. [S] [LC 6]

Wiseman, Jane Holt (fl. 1701-1717). [F] [LC 1]

Withers, James Reynolds (1812-98), ‘The Cambridgeshire Poet’, of Weston Colville, Cambridgeshire, shoemaker poet, pub. Poems upon various subjects, 3 vols (Cambridge, 1856-61), Rustic song and wayside musings, 4th edn (London, 1867), Poems (London, 1869). Ref Maidment (1987), pp. 314-16, Reilly (2000), pp. 504-5.

Withy, Nathan[iel], ‘The Wandering Bard’, of Wolverhampton, self-taught protegé of Lord Lylleton who gave hm a cottage on the Hagley estate, made mathematical rhymes and sold his versified multiplication tables doror-to-door, author of Miscellaneous Poems (4th edn, Wolverhampton, 1777, Dobell 2101, BL 11632.aa.52); An Admonition to the Watermen (Worcester, 1786?, BL 11622.c.22(2)); A History of England (Wolverhampton, 1785, BL 16098/4724); . Ref Dobell, Staffs. Poets, pp. 97-9, ESTC.

? Wood, Benjamin, Lancashire dialect writer, pub. “Sparks for a smithy”: Lancashire recitations, suitable for public readings or social gatherings (Bury and Manchester, 1879). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 505.

? Wood, John Athol, Chartist poet. Ref Kovalev, pp. 133-4, Scheckner, pp. 322-4. 345.

? Wood, John Wilson (1834-85), of Cupar, Fyfe, baker’s son, apprentice baker, then studied law, lived in America, returned as grocer and spirit merchant, town councillor, pub. The serpent round the soul: a poem (Edinburgh and Cupar, 1870); The gipsy heir, and other poems (Cupar-Fife, 1883); Ceres races. Ref Reilly (2000), p. 506; Reilly (1994), p. 522; Edwards 9 (1886), p. xxiii. [S]

Wood, Robert (b. 1850), of Newmilns, Ayrshire, handloom weaver, poems in Murdoch. Ref  Murdoch, pp. 422-3. [S]

Wood, William, weaver, of Eyam, Derbyshire, The Genius of the Peak and other Poems (London and Sheffield, 1837). Ref Johnson, item 990.

Woodhouse, James (1735-1820), shoemaker poet, pub. Poems on Sundry Occasions (1764), Poems on Several Occasions (1766), Poems on Several Occasions (1788), Norbury Park, A Poem; With Several Others, Written on Various Occasions (1803). , The Life and Lucubrations of Crispinus Scriblerus...A novel in verse. Part I (1804), The Life and Poetical Works of James Woodhouse, 2 vols. (1896). Ref Southey, pp. 114-21, 192-4, Staffs. Poets, pp. 81-5, Unwin, p. 71, 74-6, Tinker, pp. 97-9, Winks, pp. 296-7, Klaus (1985), pp. 6-21, Cafarelli, 78-9 & 81, Rizzo, 243, 254-8, Harvey, Richardson, p. 257, Goodridge (1999), item 131, EPFTD, Christmas, pp. 17, 183-210, 215. [LC 2]

Woodley, George, ‘a seaman who became a hackwriter, produced half a dozen volumes of verse, and was eventually induced, in 1820, to take Holy Orders and go to Scilly isles as a missionary’ (Harvey); pub. Mount-Edgcumbe, a descriptive poem; the shipwreck, a naval eclogue; and miscellaneous verses on several occasions. With notes (1804), Britain's bulwarks; or, The British seaman: a poem (1811), Portugal delivered, a poem (1812), The divinity of Christ proved, from his love to mankind ... and the true Church of Christ ascertained (1819), Cornubia: a poem (1819), A view of the present state of the Scilly islands (1822).

Woodrow, William (b. 1817), of Paisley, pub. poems in periodicals, 1878 collection. Ref Brown. [S]

Work, Thomas Lawrence (b. 1838), of Aberdeen, printer, emigrated to Australia, poems in Edwards. Ref Edwards, 12 (1889), pp. 211-19. [S]

Wrigglesworth, John (1856-1903), of Castleford, coal miner, pub. Grass from a Yorkshire village (Westminster, 1897). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 526.

Wright, John (1805-43), ‘The Galston Poet’, Ayrshire weaver poet, pub. The Retrospect or youthful scenes. With other Poems and Songs (Edinburgh, 1833), The whole poetical work of John Wright (Ayr, 1843). Ref Edwards, 3 (1881), pp. 121-30; Southey, p. xv, Wilson, II, pp. 541-2, DNB. [LC 5] [S]

Wright, Orlando, mechanic, of Birmingham and York, pub. A wreath of leisure hours: poems, including an elegy on the Hartley Colliery catastrophe (Birmingham, 1862), Clifton Green: a poem, etc. (London, York and Scarbro, 1868), Maxims and epigrams (London, 1876). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 510.

Wright, William (‘Bill o’th’Hoylus End’) (b. 1836), of Haworth, Yorkshire, musician’s son, warp-dresser, strolling player, soldier, wrote ‘The Factory Girl’, pub. in his Poems (Keighley, rev. edn., 1891), also pub. Random rhymes and rambles, by Bill o’ th’ Hoylus End (Keighley, 1876). Ref Maidment (1987), pp. 272-4, Reilly (1994), pp. 47 & 527, Reilly (2000), p. 510.

? Wrigley, Ammon (1862-1946), of Saddleworth, millworker, dialect poet, pub.  Saddleworth: Its Prehistoric Remains (Oldham D E Clegg 1911); Songs of a Moorland Parish with Prose Sketches. A Collection of Verse and Prose, Chiefly Relating to the Parish of Saddleworth (Saddleworth: Moore & Edwards, 1912), and other works, all apparently post-1900. Ref Hollingworth, p. 156; ABEbooks listings.

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Yates, Henry, of Blackburn, handloom weaver, son of a railwayman , living first at Summit then at Blackburn, dialect and local poet, pub Songs of the Twilight and the Dawn. Ref Hull, pp. 221-37, inf. Bob Heyes.

? Yates, James, ‘serving man’, pub. The Castell of Courtesie (London, 1582). Ref Cranbrook, p. 247.

Yearsley, Ann (c. 1752-1806). Ref Southey, pp. 125-34, 195-8, Rowton, pp. 184-6, Unwin, pp. 68, 77-81, Tinker, pp. 99-104, Lonsdale (1989), pp. 392-401, Klaus (1985), pp. 6-10, 15-17, 20-1, Shiach, pp. 45, 56-9, Cafarelli, 79-81, Rizzo, 243, 258-61, Milne (1999), pp. 139-73, Harvey, Richardson, pp. 252-4, Goodridge (1999), item 134, Jackson (1993), pp. 383-5, Vincent, p. 33, EPFTD; Caroline Franklin, Introduction to The death of Amnon. A Poem by Elizabeth Hands [and] The Rural Lyre, A Volume of Poems by Ann Yearsley (London: Routledge, 1996); Christmas, pp. 18-19, 23, 235-66; Tim Burke (ed), Ann Yearsley: Selected Poems (Cyder Press, 2003). [F] [LC 3]

Yewdall, John, ‘the Hunslet Toll-Keeper’, author of The Toll-Bar and Other Poems (Leeds, 1827), includes autobiographical account. Ref BL 1568/5303. Ref Johnson, item 999.

Yool, James (1792-1860), of Paisley, weaver, active in founding Paisley Literary and Convivial Association, helped to publish ‘The Caledonian Lyre’ a magazine, in 1815, contributed to the Harp of Renfrewshire and later edited Paisley Literary Miscellany to which he contributed, pub. The Rise & Progress of Oppression, or the Weavers’ Struggle for their Prices, A Tale (Paisley, 1813), The Poems and Songs and Literary Recreations of James Yool, Collected and Collated for the Paisley Burns Club by William Stewart (Glasgow, 1883), his works were collected posthumously in manuscript. Ref Brown, Leonard, pp. 63-73. [S]

Young, John (1825-91), of Milton of Campsie, Stirlingshire, moved to Glasgow, boilermaker, carter, disabled in an accident, 1853, lived in the poorhouse for six years, almost blind in later years, pub. Lays from the poorhouse: being a collection of temperance and miscellaneous pieces, chiefly Scottish (Glasgow, 1860 [but Murdoch gives 1859]). Lays from the ingle nook: a collection of tales, sketches, &c. (Glasgow, 1863), Homely pictures in verse, chiefly of a domestic nature (Glasgow, 1865),  Poems and lyrics, chiefly in the Scottish dialect (Glasgow, 1868), Lochlomond side, and other poems (Glasgow, 1872), Pictures in prose and verse: or, personal recollections of the late Janet Hamilton, Langloan: together with several hitherto unpublished poetic pieces (Glasgow, 1877), Selections from my first volume, Lays from the poorhouse: (published November 1860), with an appendix containing some hitherto unpublished poems (Glasgow, 1881). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 514; Reilly (1994), p. 531, Murdoch, pp. 184-8. [S] [LC 6]

Young, John (b. 1827), of Paisley, drawboy and weaver, pub. poems in newspapers with current proposal in the works to publish separately. Ref Brown. [S]

Young, Robert (b. 1800), of Fintona, County Tyroe, nailer, granted Civil List pension of £40 in 1866, pub. The poetical works of Robert Young of Londonderry: comprising historical, agricultural, and miscellaneous poems and songs, with copious notes (Londonderry , Derby and Dublin, 1863). Ref Reilly (2000), p. 515. [I]

Young, Robert, working man, of Bothwell, Lanarkshire, pub. Love at the Plough, and other poems (Biggar, ?1888). Ref Reilly (1994), p. 531. [S]

Younger, John (1785-60), shoemaker poet, pub. Thoughts as They Rise (1834), River Angling with a treatise on salmon (1840), The Scotch Corn Law Rhyme (1841), The Light of the Week (1849), Autobiography of John Younger, Shoemaker, of St. Boswell’s (1881). Ref Winks, pp. 319-21. [S] [LC 5]

Yule, John T (b. 1848), of Milnathort, Kinrossshire, shoemaker, letter-carrier, pub. Mable Lee: a sketch (Selkirk, 1885). Ref Edwards, 3 (1881), pp. 225-9; Reilly (1994), p. 532. [S]

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